The Effect of Exercise Intensity on Carbohydrate Sparing Postexercise: Implications for Postexercise Hypoglycemia

Click name to view affiliation

Raymond J. Davey Curtin School of Allied Health, Curtin University, Whadjuk Noongar Country, Perth, WA, Australia

Search for other papers by Raymond J. Davey in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5651-6602 *
,
Mohamad H. Jaafar School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Whadjuk Noongar Country, Perth, WA, Australia

Search for other papers by Mohamad H. Jaafar in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Luis D. Ferreira School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Whadjuk Noongar Country, Perth, WA, Australia

Search for other papers by Luis D. Ferreira in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Paul A. Fournier School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Whadjuk Noongar Country, Perth, WA, Australia

Search for other papers by Paul A. Fournier in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise intensity on the proportion and rate of carbohydrate oxidation and glucoregulatory hormone responses during recovery from exercise. Six physically active participants completed 1 hr of low-intensity (LI; 50% lactate threshold) or moderate-intensity (MI; 100% lactate threshold) exercise on separate days following a randomized counterbalanced design. During exercise and for 6 hr of recovery, samples of expired air were collected to determine oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation rates. Blood samples were also collected to measure glucoregulatory hormones (catecholamines, GH) and metabolites (glucose, free fatty acids, lactate, pH, and bicarbonate). During exercise, respiratory exchange ratio, energy expenditure, and the proportion and rate of carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation were higher during MI compared with LI. However, during recovery from MI, respiratory exchange ratio and the proportion and rate of CHO oxidation were lower than preexercise levels and corresponding LI. During exercise and early recovery, catecholamines and growth hormone were higher in MI than LI, and there was a trend for higher levels of free fatty acids in the early recovery from MI compared with LI. In summary, CHO oxidation during exercise increases with exercise intensity but there is a preference for CHO sparing (and fat oxidation) during recovery from MI exercise compared with LI exercise. This exercise intensity-dependent shift in substrate oxidation during recovery is explained, in part, by the pattern of change of key glucoregulatory hormones including catecholamines and growth hormone and plasma fatty acid concentrations.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Baron, A.D., Wallace, P., & Olefsky, J.M. (1987). In vivo regulation of non-insulin-mediated and insulin-mediated glucose uptake by epinephrine. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 64(5), 889895. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem-64-5-889

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christmass, M.A., Dawson, B., Passeretto, P., & Arthur, P.G. (1999). A comparison of skeletal muscle oxygenation and fuel use in sustained continuous and intermittent exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 80(5), 423435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050614

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davey, R.J., Howe, W., Paramalingam, N., Ferreira, L.D., Davis, E.A., Fournier, P.A., & Jones T.W. (2013). The effect of midday moderate-intensity exercise on postexercise hypoglycemia risk in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 98(7), 29082914. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-1169

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrannini, E. (1988). The theoretical bases of indirect calorimetry: A review. Metabolism, 37(3), 287301. https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(88)90110-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frayn, K.N. (1983). Calculation of substrate oxidation rates in vivo from gaseous exchange. Journal of Applied Physiology, 55(2), 628634. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1983.55.2.628

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galassetti, P., Mann, S., Tate, D., Neill, R.A., Wasserman, D.H., & Davis, S.N. (2001). Effect of morning exercise on counterregulatory responses to subsequent, afternoon exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 91(1) 9199. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2001.91.1.91

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galassetti, P., Tate, D., Neill, R.A., Morrey, S., Wasserman, D.H., & Davis, S.N. (2003). Effect of antecedent hypoglycemia on counterregulatory responses to subsequent euglycemic exercise in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 52(7), 17611769. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.52.7.1761

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galassetti, P., Tate, D., Neill, R.A., Richardson, A., Leu, S.Y., & Davis, S.N. (2006). Effect of differing antecedent hypoglycemia on counterregulatory responses to exercise in type 1 diabetes. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism, 290, E1109E1117. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00244.2005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuo, C.C., Fattor, J.A., Henderson, G.C., & Brooks, G.A. (2005). Lipid oxidation in fit young adults during postexercise recovery. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(1) 349356. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00997.2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maehlum, S., Felig, P., & Wahren, J. (1978). Splanchnic glucose and muscle glycogen metabolism after glucose feeding during postexercise recovery. American Journal of Physiology, 235(3), E255E260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maehlum, S., Grandmontagne, M., Newsholme, E.A., & Sejersted, O.M. (1986). Magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption in healthy young subjects. Metabolism, 35(5), 425429. https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(86)90132-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McMahon, S.K., Ferreira, L.D., Ratnam, N., Davey, R.J., Youngs, L.M., Davis, E.A., Fournier, P.A., & Jones T.W. (2007). Glucose requirements to maintain euglycemia after moderate-intensity afternoon exercise in adolescents with type 1 diabetes are increased in a biphasic manner. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92(3), 963968. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-2263

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Melanson, E.L., Sharp, T.A., Seagle, H.M., Horton, T.J., Donahoo, W.T., Grunwald, G.K., Hamilton, J.T., & Hill, J.O. (2002). Effect of exercise intensity on 24-h energy expenditure and nutrient oxidation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92(3), 10451052. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00706.2001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mello-Silva, B.N., Protzen, G.V., & Del Vecchio, F.B. (2022). Inclusion of sprints during moderate-intensity continuous exercise enhances post-exercise fat oxidation in young males. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 47(2), 165172. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2021-0383

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peirce, N.S. (1999). Diabetes and exercise. British Journal of Sports and Medicine, 33(3), 161172. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.33.3.161

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pritzlaff, C.J., Wideman, L., Blumer, J., Jensen, M., Abbott, R.D., Gaesser, G.A., Veldhuis, J.D., & Weltman, A. (2000). Catecholamine release, growth hormone secretion, and energy expenditure during exercise vs. recovery in men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(3), 937946. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.3.937

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Romijn, J.A., Coyle, E.F., Hibbert, J., & Wolfe, R.R. (1992). Comparison of indirect calorimetry and a new breath 13C/12C ratio method during strenuous exercise. American Journal of Physiology, 263(1 Pt 1), E64E71.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shetty, V.B., Fournier, P.A., Davey, R.J., Retterath, A.J., Paramalingam, N., Roby, H.C., Cooper, M.N., Davis, E.A., & Jones, T.W. (2016). Effect of exercise intensity on glucose requirements to maintain euglycemia during exercise in type 1 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 101(3), 972980. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-4026

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shetty, V.B., Fournier, P.A., Paramalingam, N., Soon, W., Roby, H.C., Jones, T.W., & Davis, E.A. (2021). Effect of exercise intensity on exogenous glucose requirements to maintain stable glycemia at high insulin levels in type 1 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 106(1), e83e93.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D.L., Townsend, K.M., Boughey, R., Patterson, K., & Bassett, D.R., Jr. (1998). Substrate use during and following moderate- and low-intensity exercise: Implications for weight control. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 78(1), 4349. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050385

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wahrenberg, H., Engfeldt, P., Bolinder, J., & Arner, P. (1987). Acute adaptation in adrenergic control of lipolysis during physical exercise in humans. American Journal of Physiology, 253, E383E390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warren, A., Howden, E.J., Williams, A.D., Fell, J.W., & Johnson, N.A. (2009). Postexercise fat oxidation: effect of exercise duration, intensity, and modality. International Journal of Sport Nutrition Exercise and Metabolism, 19(6), 607623. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.19.6.607

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wasserman, D., & Zinman, B. (1994). Exercise in individuals with IDDM. Diabetes Care, 17(8), 924937. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.17.8.924

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1057 1057 54
Full Text Views 45 45 0
PDF Downloads 72 72 0