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Fourteen trained male anabolic steroid-using bodybuilders (SBBs) (19-41 years) were recruited for the study. Three-day diet records were obtained from SBBs and analyzed. A resting venous blood sample was drawn, and serum/ plasma was subsequently analyzed for various nutritionally related factors. Results showed that mean dietary energy (4,469 ± 1,406 kcal), protein (252 ± 109 g), and vitamin and mineral intakes of SBBs greatly exceeded U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Dietary cholesterol intake was 2.8 times the recommended levels. Mean serum/plasma nutrient concentrations of SBBs were within normal range. However, individual SBBs had a number of serum/ plasma values outside of the normal or recommended range, the most notable of which was hypercalcemia, which was present in 42% of SBBs. Serum/plasma lipids were such as to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in these subjects.

R.E. Keith and R.E. Carson are with the Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849. M.H. Stone is with the Department of Health, Leisure and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608. R.G. Lefavi is with the Department of Health Science, Armstrong State College, Savannah, GA 31419. S.J. Fleck is with the Division of Sports Science, United States Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs, CO 80909.

International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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