Fluid losses (measured by body weight changes) and voluntary fluid intakes were measured in elite basketball, netball, and soccer teams during typical summer and winter exercise sessions to determine fluid requirements and the degree of fluid replacement. Each subject was weighed in minimal clothing before and immediately after training, weights, and competition sessions; fluid intake, duration of exercise, temperature and humidity, and opportunity to drink were recorded. Sweat rates were greatest during competition sessions and significantly lower during weights sessions for all sports. Seasonal variation in dehydration (%DH) was not as great as may have been expected, particularly in sports played indoors. Factors influencing fluid replacement during exercise included provision of an individual water bottle, proximity to water bottles during sessions, encouragement to drink, rules of the game, duration and number of breaks or substitutions, and awareness of personal sweat rates. Guidelines for optimizing fluid intakes in these three sports are provided.
E.M. Broad, L.M. Burke, G.R. Cox, andP. Heeley are with the Australian Institute of Sport, PO Box 176, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. M. Riley is with the Menzies Centre for Population Health Research, GPO Box 252C, Hobart Tas. 7001, Australia.