Concurrent Development of Endurance Capacity and Explosiveness: Training Characteristics of World-Class Nordic Combined Athletes

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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Performing at an elite level in Nordic combined (NC) requires both the explosiveness required for ski jumping performance and the endurance capacity required for cross-country skiing.

Purpose:

To describe the characteristics of world-class NC athletes’ training and determine how endurance and non–endurance (ie, strength, power, and ski jumping) training is periodized.

Methods:

Annual training characteristics and the periodization of endurance and non–endurance training were determined by analyzing the training diaries of 6 world-class NC athletes.

Results:

Of 846 ± 72 annual training hours, 540 ± 37 h were endurance training, with 88.6% being low-, 5.9% moderate-, and 5.5% high-intensity training. While training frequency remained relatively constant, the total training volume was reduced from the general preparatory to the competition phase, primarily due to less low- and moderate-intensity training (P < .05). A total of 236 ± 55 h/y were spent as non–endurance training, including 211 ± 44 h of power and ski-jump-specific training (908 ± 165 ski jumps and ski-jump imitations). The proportion of non–endurance training increased significantly toward the competition phase (P < .05).

Conclusion:

World-class NC athletes reduce the volume of low- and moderate-intensity endurance training toward the competition phase, followed by an increase in the relative contribution of power and ski-jump training. These data provide novel insight on how successful athletes execute their training and may facilitate more-precise coaching of future athletes in this sport. In addition, this information is of high relevance for the training organization of other sports that require optimization of 2 fundamentally different physical capacities.

Tønnessen, Haugen, and Hem are with the Norwegian Olympic Federation, Oslo, Norway. Rasdal and Sandbakk are with the Center for Elite Sports Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Svendsen is with the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.

Address author correspondence to Espen Tønnessen at espen.tonnessen@olympiatoppen.no.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance