Longitudinal Changes and Seasonal Variation in Body Composition in Professional Australian Football Players

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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To compare development and variations in body composition of early-, mid-, and late-career professional Australian Football (AF) players over 3 successive seasons.


Regional and total-body composition (body mass [BM], fat mass [FM], fat-free soft-tissue mass [FFSTM], and bone mineral content [BMC]) were assessed 4 times, at the same time of each season—start preseason (SP), end preseason (EP), midseason (MS), and end season (ES)—from 22 professional AF players using pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutritional intake for each player was evaluated concomitantly using 3-d food diaries. Players were classified according to their age at the beginning of the observational period as either early- (<21 y, n = 8), mid- (21 to 25 y, n = 9), or late- (>25 y, n = 5) career athletes.


Early-career players had lower FFSTM, BMC, and BM than mid- and late-career throughout. FM and %FM had greatest variability, particularly in the early-career players. FM reduced and FFSTM increased from SP to EP, while FM and FFSTM decreased from EP to MS. FM increased and FFSTM decreased from MS to ES, while FM and FFSTM increased during the off-season.


Early-career players may benefit from greater emphasis on specific nutrition and resistance-training strategies aimed at increasing FFSTM, while all players should balance training and diet toward the end of season to minimize increases in FM.

Bilsborough, Kempton, and Coutts are with the Sport & Exercise Discipline Group, University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Sydney, NSW, Australia. Greenway is with the Carlton Football Club, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Cordy is with the Gold Coast Suns, Carrara, QLD, Australia.

Address author correspondence to Aaron Coutts at aaron.coutts@uts.edu.au.