Reliability and Seasonal Changes of Submaximal Variables to Evaluate Professional Cyclists

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $107.00

1 year subscription

USD  $142.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $203.00

2 year subscription

USD  $265.00

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of several submaximal variables that can be easily obtained by monitoring cyclists’ performances. Methods: Eighteen professional cyclists participated in this study. In a first part (n = 15) the test-retest reliability of heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during a progressive maximal test was measured. Derived submaximal variables based on HR, RPE, and power output (PO) responses were analyzed. In a second part (n = 7) the pattern of the submaximal variables according to cyclists’ training status was analyzed. Cyclists were assessed 3 times during the season: at the beginning of the season, before the Vuelta a España, and the day after this Grand Tour. Results: Part 1: No significant differences in maximal and submaximal variables between test-retest were found. Excellent ICCs (0.81–0.98) were obtained in all variables. Part 2: The HR and RPE showed a rightward shift from early to peak season. In addition, RPE showed a left shift after the Vuelta a España. Submaximal variables based on RPE had the best relationship with both performance and changes in performance. Conclusion: The present study showed the reliability of different maximal and submaximal variables used to assess cyclists’ performances. Submaximal variables based on RPE seem to be the best to monitor changes in training status over a season.

Rodríguez-Marroyo, Pernía, and Villa are with the Dept of Physical Education and Sports, University of León, León, Spain. Foster is with the Dept of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI.

Rodríguez-Marroyo (j.marroyo@unileon.es) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Joyner MJ, Coyle EF. Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. J Physiol. 2008;586:35–44. PubMed doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.143834

  • 2.

    Lucía A, Hoyos J, Pérez M, Chicharro JL. Heart rate and performance parameters in elite cyclists: a longitudinal study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:1777–1782. doi:10.1097/00005768-200010000-00018

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Sassi A, Marcons SM, Rampinini E, Mognoni P, Impellizzeri FM. Prediction of time to exhaustion from blood lactate response during submaximal exercise in competitive cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;97:174–180. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0157-1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Lucía A, Pardo J, Durántez A, Hoyos J, Chicharro JL. Physiological differences between professional and elite road cyclists. Int J Sports Med. 1998;19:342–348. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971928

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Rodríguez-Marroyo JA, García López J, Juneau CE, Villa JG. Workload demands in professional multi-stage cycling races of varying duration. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43:180–185. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.043125

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Barbeau P, Serresse O, Boulay MR. Using maximal and submaximal aerobic variables to monitor elite cyclists during a season. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25:1062–1069. PubMed doi:10.1249/00005768-199309000-00015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Amann M, Subudhi AW, Walker J, Eisenman P, Shultz B, Foster C. An evaluation of the predictive validity and reliability of ventilatory threshold. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:1716–1722. PubMed doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000142305.18543.34

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Lamberts RP, Swart J, Noakes TD, Lambert MI. A novel submaximal cycle test to monitor fatigue and predict cycling performance. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:797–804. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.061325

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Lamberts RP, Rietjens JG, Tijdink HH, Noakes TD, Lambert MI. Measuring submaximal performance parameters to monitor fatigue and predict cycling performance: a case study of a world-class cyclo-cross cyclist. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108:183–190. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1291-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Hammes D, Skorski S, Schwindling S, et al. Can the Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test indicate fatigue and recovery in trained cyclists? Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11:328–336. PubMed doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0119

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Coquart JB, Garcin M, Parfitt G, Tourny-Cholott C, Eston R. Prediction of maximal or peak oxygen uptake from ratings of perceived exertion. Sports Med. 2014;44:563–578. PubMed doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0139-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Heil DP, Derrick TR, Whittlesey S. The relationship between preferred and optimal positioning during submaximal cycle ergometry. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1997;75:160–165. doi:10.1007/s004210050141

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc Physiol. 1982;14:377–381. PubMed

  • 14.

    Kuipers H, Verstappen FT, Keizer HA, Geurten P, van Kranenburg G. Variability of aerobic performance in the laboratory and its physiological correlates. Int J Sports Med. 1985;6:197–201. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-2008-1025839

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Davis JA. Anaerobic threshold: a review of the concept and directions for future research. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985;17:6–18. PubMed

  • 16.

    Haber P, Schlick W, Schmid P, Mieluck K. Estimation of the performance spectrum of healthy adolescents by using the PWC170.Acta Med Austriaca. 1976;3:164–166. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Scherr J, Wolfarth B, Christle JW, Pressler A, Wagenpfeil S, Halle M. Associations between Borg’s rating of perceived exertion and physiological measures of exercise intensity. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:147–155. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-012-2421-x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Fleiss JL. Reliability of measurement: The Design and Analysis of Clinical Experiments. New York, NY: Wiley; 1986.

  • 19.

    Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdales, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988.

  • 20.

    Hopkins WG. Spreadsheets for analysis of controlled trails with adjustment for a predictor. Sportscience. 2006;10:46–50.

  • 21.

    Weston SB, Gabbett TJ. Reproducibility of ventilation of thresholds in trained cyclists during ramp cycle exercise. J Sci Med Sport. 2001;4:357–366. PubMed doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(01)80044-X

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Mahoney C. 20-MST and PWC170 validity in non-Caucasian children in the UK. Br J Sports Med. 1992;26:45–47. PubMed

  • 23.

    Lamberts RP, Lemmink KA, Durandt JJ, Lambert MI. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: implications for monitoring training. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18:641–645. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Buchheit M, Lefebvre B, Laursen PB, Ahmaidi S. Reliability, usefulness, and validity of the 30-15 intermittent ice test in young elite ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:1457–1464. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d686b7

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Lamb KL, Eston RG, Corns D. Reliability of ratings of perceived exertion during progressive treadmill exercise. Br J Sports Med. 1999;33:336–339. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsm.33.5.336

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Jeukendrup AE, Hesselink MK, Snyder AC, Kuipers H, Keizer HA. Physiological changes in male competitive cyclists after two weeks of intensified training. Int J Sports Med. 1992;13:534–541. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-2007-1021312

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Le Meur Y, Louis J, Aubry A, et al. Maximal exercise limitation in functionally overreached triathletes: role of cardiac adrenergic stimulation. J Appl Physiol. 2014;117:214–222. PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00191.2014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Lucía A, Díaz B, Hoyos J, et al. Hormone levels of world class cyclists during the Tour of Spain stage race. Br J Sports Med. 2001;35:424–430. doi:10.1136/bjsm.35.6.424

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Halson SL, Bridge MW, Meeusen R, et al. Time course of performance changes and fatigue markers during intensified training in trained cyclists. J Appl Physiol. 2002;93:947–956. PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01164.2001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Noakes TD. Linear relationship between the perception of effort and the duration of constant load exercise that remains. J Appl Physiol. 2004;96:1571–1573. PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01124.2003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Crewe H, Tucker R, Noakes TD. The rate of increase in rating of perceived exertion predicts the duration of exercise to fatigue at a fixed power output in different environmental conditions. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;103:569–577. PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-008-0741-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 84 84 25
Full Text Views 1 1 0
PDF Downloads 1 1 0