No Compromise of Competition Sleep Compared With Habitual Sleep in Elite Australian Footballers

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $107.00

1 year subscription

USD $142.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $203.00

2 year subscription

USD $265.00

Purpose: To assess the impact of match-start time and days relative to match compared with the habitual sleep characteristics of elite Australian Football (AF) players. Methods: 45 elite male AF players were assessed during the preseason (habitual) and across 4 home matches during the season. Players wore an activity monitor the night before (−1), night of (0), 1 night after (+1), and 2 nights (+2) after each match and completed a self-reported rating of sleep quality. A 2-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc was used to determine differences in sleep characteristics between match-start times and days relative to the match. Two-way nested ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between competition and habitual phases. Effect size ± 90% confidence interval (ES ± 90% CI) was calculated to quantify the magnitude of pairwise differences. Results: Differences observed in sleep-onset latency (ES = 0.11 ± 0.16), sleep rating (ES = 0.08 ± 0.14), and sleep duration (ES = 0.08 ± 0.01) between competition and habitual periods were trivial. Sleep efficiency was almost certainly higher during competition than habitual, but this was not reflected in the subjective rating of sleep quality. Conclusions: Elite AF competition does not cause substantial disruption to sleep characteristics compared with habitual sleep. While match-start time has some impact on sleep variables, it appears that the match itself is more of a disruption than the start time. Subjective ratings of sleep from well-being questionnaires appear limited in their ability to accurately provide an indication of sleep quality.

Lalor, Kemp, and Cormack are with the School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Halson is with the Dept of Physiology, Australian Inst of Sport, Bruce, ACT, Australia. Tran is with the School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Lalor (benita.lalor@myacu.edu.au) is corresponding author.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Mooney GMCormack JSO’brien MBMorgan MWMcGuigan MM. Impact of neuromuscular fatigue on match exercise intensity and performance in Elite Australian Football. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:166173. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182514683

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Fullagar HHDuffield RSkorski SCoutts AJJulian RMeyer T. Sleep and recovery in team sport: current sleep-related issues facing professional team-sport athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10:950957. PubMed doi:10.1123/ijspp.2014-0565

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Van Dongen HPMaislin GMullington JMDinges DF. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. Sleep. 2003;26:117126. PubMed doi:10.1093/sleep/26.2.117

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Samuels C. Sleep, recovery, and performance: the new frontier in high-performance athletics. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2009;20:149159. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2008.10.009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Sargent CRoach GD. Sleep duration is reduced in elite athletes following night-time competition. Chronobiol Int. 2016;33:667670. doi:10.3109/07420528.2016.1167715

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Sargent CLastella MHalson SLRoach GD. The validity of activity monitors for measuring sleep in elite athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19:848853. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hopkins WG. A scale of magnitudes for effect statistics. 2002. http://www.sportsci.org/resource/stats/index

    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Leeder JGlaister MPizzoferro KDawson JPedlar C. Sleep duration and quality in elite athletes measured using wristwatch actigraphy. J Sports Sci. 2012;30:541545. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.660188

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Shearer DAJones RMKilduff LPCook CJ. Effects of competition on the sleep patterns of elite rugby union players. Eur J Sports Sci. 2015;15:681686. doi:10.1080/17461391.2015.1053419

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Lastella MRoach GDHalson SLMartin DTWest NPSargent C. Sleep/wake behaviour of endurance cyclists before and during competition. J Sports Sci. 2015;33:293299. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2014.942690

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Sargent CLastella MHalson SLRoach GD. The impact of training schedules on the sleep and fatigue of elite athletes. Chronobiol Int. 2014;31:11601168. doi:10.3109/07420528.2014.957306

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Richmond LDawson BHillman DREastwood PR. The effect of interstate travel on sleep patterns of elite Australian Rules footballers. J Sci Med Sport. 2004;7:186196. PubMed doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(04)80008-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Richmond LKDawson BStewart GCormack SHillman DREastwood PR. The effect of interstate travel on the sleep patterns and performance of elite Australian Rules footballers. J Sci Med Sport. 2007;10:252258. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2007.03.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Acebo CSadeh ASeifer Ret al. Estimating sleep patterns with activity monitoring in children and adolescents: how many nights are necessary for reliable measures? Sleep. 1999;22:95103. PubMed doi:10.1093/sleep/22.1.95

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Ohayon MMCarskadon MAGuilleminault CVitiello MV. Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan. Sleep. 2004;27:12551273. PubMed doi:10.1093/sleep/27.7.1255

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Thomee SHarenstam AHagberg M. Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults-a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:66. PubMed doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-66

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Thomée SEklöf MGustafsson ENilsson RHagberg M. Prevalence of perceived stress, symptoms of depression and sleep disturbances in relation to information and communication technology (ICT) use among young adults—an explorative prospective study. Comput Human Behav. 2007;23:13001321. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2004.12.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Fullagar HSkorski SDuffield RMeyer T. The effect of an acute sleep hygiene strategy following a late-night soccer match on recovery of players. Chronobiol Int. 2016;33:490505. doi:10.3109/07420528.2016.1149190

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Stepanski EJWyatt JK. Use of sleep hygiene in the treatment of insomnia. Sleep Med Rev. 2003;7:215225. PubMed doi:10.1053/smrv.2001.0246

  • 20.

    Fullagar HSkorski SDuffield RHammes DCoutts AMeyer T. Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Sports Med. 2015;45:161186. PubMed doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0260-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Fullagar HHKSkorski SDuffield RJulian RBartlett JMeyer T. Impaired sleep and recovery after night matches in elite football players. J Sports Sci. 2016;34:13331339. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1135249

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Pitchford NRobertson SSargent CBishop DBartlett J. A pre-season training camp alters sleep behaviour and quality but not quantity in elite Australian Rules football players. J Sci Med Sport. 2015; 19:2021. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.427

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Roach GDSchmidt WFAughey RJet al. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47:i114i120. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092843

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Sargent CHalson SRoach GD. Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14:S310S315. doi:10.1080/17461391.2012.696711

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Robey EDawson BHalson SGregson WGoodman CEastwood P. Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: a pilot study. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14:410417. PubMed doi:10.1080/17461391.2013.843024

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Chokroverty S. Sleep Disorders Medicine: Basic Science Technical Considerations and Clinical Aspects. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Juliff LEHalson SLPeiffer JJ. Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18:1318. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.02.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Mah CDMah KEKezirian EJDement WC. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players. Sleep. 2011;34:943950. PubMed doi:10.5665/SLEEP.1132

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Schwartz JSimon RD. Sleep extension improves serving accuracy: a study with college varsity tennis players. Physiol Behav. 2015;151:541544. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.08.035

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Kawada T. Agreement rates for sleep/wake judgments obtained via accelerometer and sleep diary: a comparison. Behav Res Methods. 2008;40:10261029. PubMed doi:10.3758/BRM.40.4.1026

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Romyn GRobey EDimmock JAHalson SLPeeling P. Sleep, anxiety and electronic device use by athletes in the training and competition environments. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16:301308. PubMed doi:10.1080/17461391.2015.1023221

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Sadeh AHauri PKripke DLavie P. The role of actigraphy in the evaluation of sleep disorders. Sleep. 1995;18:288302.

  • 33.

    Gallo TFCormack SJGabbett TJLorenzen CH. Pre-training perceived wellness impacts training output in Australian football players. J Sports Sci. 2016;34:14451451. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1119295

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 87 87 18
Full Text Views 6 6 3
PDF Downloads 5 5 4
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By