Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $112.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $149.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $213.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $284.00

Purpose: To investigate whether oxygen-uptake (V˙O2) kinetics and simulated 4-km cycling performance are synergistically improved by prior “priming” exercise and an all-out starting strategy. Methods: Nine men completed 4 target work trials (114 ± 17 kJ) to assess V˙O2 kinetics and cycling performance in a repeated-measures, crossover experimental design. Trials were initiated with either a 12-s all-out start or a self-selected start and preceded by prior severe-intensity (70%Δ) priming exercise or no priming exercise. Results: The V˙O2 mean response time (MRT) was lower (indicative of faster V˙O2 kinetics) in the all-out primed condition (20 ± 6 s) than in the all-out unprimed (23 ± 6 s), self-paced-unprimed (42 ± 13 s), and self-paced-primed (42 ± 11 s) trials (P < .05), with the V˙O2 MRT also lower in the all-out unprimed than the self-paced unprimed and self-paced primed trials (P < .05). Trial-completion time was shorter (performance was enhanced) in the all-out primed trial (402 ± 14 s) than in the all-out unprimed (408 ± 14 s), self-paced unprimed (411 ± 16 s), and self-paced primed (411 ± 19 s) trials (P < .05), with no differences between the latter 3 trials. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that combining severe-intensity priming exercise with a short-duration all-out starting strategy can expedite the adjustment of V˙O2 and lower completion time during a cycling performance trial to a greater extent than either intervention administered independently. These results might have implications for optimizing performance in short-duration high-intensity competitive events such as a 4-km cycling time trial.

Brock, Antonellis, Black, Vanhatalo, and Jones are with Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom. DiMenna is with the Dept of Biobehavioral Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY. Bailey is with the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom

Bailey (S.Bailey2@lboro.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Whipp BJ, Wasserman K. Oxygen uptake kinetics for various intensities of constant-load work. J Appl Physiol. 1972;33:351356. PubMed

  • 2.

    Krustrup P, Jones AM, Wilkerson DP, Calbet JA, Bangsbo J. Muscular and pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics during moderate- and high-intensity sub-maximal knee-extensor exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2009;587:18431856. PubMed doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.166397

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Allen DG, Lamb GD, Westerblad H. Skeletal muscle fatigue: cellular mechanisms. Physiol Rev. 2008;88:287332. PubMed doi:10.1152/physrev.00015.2007

  • 4.

    Poole DC, Jones AM. Oxygen uptake kinetics. Compr Physiol. 2012;2:933996. PubMed

  • 5.

    Burnley M, Jones AM. Oxygen uptake kinetics as a determinant of sports performance. Eur J Sports Sci. 2007;7:6379. doi:10.1080/17461390701456148

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Aisbett B, Lerossignol P, McConell GK, Abbiss CR, Snow R. Influence of all-out and fast start on 5-min cycling time trial performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009a;41:19651971. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a2aa78

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Aisbett B, Lerossignol P, McConell GK, Abbiss CR, Snow R. Effects of starting strategy on 5-min cycling time-trial performance. J Sports Sci. 2009b;27:12011209. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410903114372

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, DiMenna FJ, Wilkerson DP, Jones AM. Fast-start strategy improves V ˙ O 2 kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:457467. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ef3dce

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Wilkerson DP, Dimenna FJ, Jones AM. Optimizing the “priming” effect: influence of prior exercise intensity and recovery duration on O2 uptake kinetics and severe-intensity exercise tolerance. J Appl Physiol. 2009;107:17431756. PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00810.2009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Bishop D, Bonetti D, Dawson B. The influence of pacing strategy on V ˙ O 2 and supramaximal kayak performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34:10411047. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005768-200206000-00022

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Burnley M, Doust JH, Jones AM. Effects of prior warm-up regime on severe-intensity cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:838845. PubMed doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000162617.18250.77

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    de Koning JJ, Bobbert MF, Foster C. Determination of optimal pacing strategy in track cycling with an energy flow model. J Sci Med Sport. 1999;2:266277. PubMed doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(99)80178-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Hajoglou A, Foster C, De Koning JJ, Lucia A, Kernozek TW, Porcari JP. Effect of warm-up on cycle time trial performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:16081614. PubMed doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000177589.02381.0a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Hettinga FJ, de Koning JJ, Foster C. V ˙ O 2 response in supramaximal cycling time trial exercise of 750 to 4000 m. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:230236. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181831f0f

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Ingham SA, Fudge BW, Pringle JS, Jones AM. Improvement of 800-mrunning performance with prior high-intensity exercise. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:7783. PubMed doi:10.1123/ijspp.8.1.77

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Jones AM, Wilkerson DP, Burnley M, Koppo K. Prior heavy exercise enhances performance during subsequent perimaximal exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:20852092. PubMed doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000099108.55944.C4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Jones AM, Wilkerson DP, Vanhatalo A, Burnley M. Influence of pacing strategy on O2 uptake and exercise tolerance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18:615626. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00725.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Palmer CD, Jones AM, Kennedy GJ, Cotter JD. Effects of prior heavy exercise on energy supply and 4000-m cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:221229. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818313b6

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    van Ingen Schenau GJ, de Koning JJ, de Groot G. The distribution of anaerobic energy in 1000 and 4000 meter cycling bouts. Int J Sports Med. 1992;13:447451. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-2007-1021296

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Black MI, DiMenna FJ, Jones AM. Effects of priming and pacing strategy on oxygen-uptake kinetics and cycling performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11:440447. PubMed doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0292

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Wood MA, Bailey SJ, Jones AM. Influence of all-out start duration on pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28:21872194. PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000399

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Koga S, Poole DC, Ferreira LF, et al. Spatial heterogeneity of quadriceps muscle deoxygenation kinetics during cycle exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2007;103:20492056. PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00627.2007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Santos Rde A, Kiss MA, Silva-Cavalcante MD, et al. Caffeine alters anaerobic distribution and pacing during a 4000-m cycling time trial. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:75399. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075399

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Caritá RA, Greco CC, Denadai BS. The positive effects of priming exercise on oxygen uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance are not magnified by a fast-start pacing strategy in trained cyclists. PLoS One. 2014;9:e95202. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095202

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Bangsbo J, Krustrup P, González-Alonso J, Saltin B. ATP production and efficiency of human skeletal muscle during intense exercise: effect of previous exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;280:E956964. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Krustrup P, González-Alonso J, Quistorff B, Bangsbo J. Muscle heat production and anaerobic energy turnover during repeated intense dynamic exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2001;536:947956. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.00947.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Bailey SJ, Fulford J, Vanhatalo A, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2010;109:135148. PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00046.2010

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Grassi B. Delayed metabolic activation of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle at exercise onset. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:15671573. PubMed doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000177472.67419.0a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 918 713 103
Full Text Views 41 10 0
PDF Downloads 33 14 1