Sprint Mechanical Properties in Handball and Basketball Players

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $107.00

1 year subscription

USD  $142.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $203.00

2 year subscription

USD  $265.00

Purpose: To quantify possible differences in sprint mechanical outputs in handball and basketball players according to playing standard and position. Methods: Sprint tests of 298 male players were analyzed. Theoretical maximal velocity (v0), horizontal force (F0), horizontal power (Pmax), force–velocity slope (SFV), ratio of force (RFmax), and index of force application technique (DRF) were calculated from anthropometric and spatiotemporal data using an inverse dynamic approach applied to the center-of-mass movement. Results: National-team handball players displayed clearly superior 10-m times (0.03, ±0.02 s), 40-m times (0.12, ±0.07 s), F0 (0.1, ±0.2 N·kg−1), v0 (0.3, ±0.2 m·s−1), and Pmax (0.9, ±0.5 W·kg−1) than corresponding top-division players. Wings differed from the other positions in terms of superior 10-m times (0.02, ±0.01 to 0.07, ±0.02 s), 40-m times (0.07, ±0.05 to 0.27, ±0.07 s), F0 (0.2, ±0.1 to 0.4, ±0.2 N·kg−1), v0 (0.1, ±0.1 to 0.5, ±0.1 m·s−1), Pmax (0.7, ±0.4 to 2.0, ±0.5 W·kg−1), and RFmax (0.6, ±0.4 to 1.3, ±0.4%). In basketball, guards differed from forwards in terms of superior 10-m times (0.03, ±0.02 s), 40-m times (0.10, ±0.08 s), v0 (0.2, ±0.1 m·s−1), Pmax (0.6, ±0.6 W·kg−1), and RFmax (0.4, ±0.3%). The effect magnitudes of the substantial differences observed ranged from small to large. Conclusions: The present results provide an overall picture of the force–velocity profile continuum in sprinting handball and basketball players and serve as useful background information for practitioners when diagnosing individual players and prescribing training programs.

Haugen and Breitschädel are with Norwegian Olympic Federation, Oslo, Norway. Breitschädel is also with the Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Seiler is with the Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.

Haugen (thomas.haugen@olympiatoppen.no) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Karcher C, Buchheit M. On-court demands of elite handball, with special reference to playing positions. Sports Med. 2014;44:797–814. PubMed ID: 24682948 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0164-z

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Stojanović E, Stojiljković N, Scanlan AT, Dalbo VJ, Berkelmans DM, Milanović Z. The activity demands and physiological responses encountered during basketball match-play: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2018;48:111–135. doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0794-z

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Michalsik LB, Madsen K, Aagaard P. Match performance and physiological capacity of female elite team handball players. Int J Sports Med. 2014;35:595–607. PubMed ID: 24264766

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Taylor JB, Wright AA, Dischiavi SL, Townsend MA, Marmon AR. Activity demands during multi-directional team sports: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2017;47:2533–2551. PubMed ID: 28801751 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0772-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Ben Abdelkrim N, Castagna C, El Fazaa S, El Ati J. The effect of players’ standard and tactical strategy on game demands in men’s basketball. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:2652–2662. PubMed ID: 20885192 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e2e0a3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Puente C, Abián-Vicén J, Areces F, López R, Del Coso J. Physical and physiological demands of experienced male basketball players during a competitive game. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31:956–962. PubMed ID: 27467516 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001577

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Luteberget LS, Spencer M. High-intensity events in international women’s team handball matches. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12:56–61. PubMed ID: 27071136 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0641

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Haugen T, Buchheit M. Sprint running performance monitoring: methodological and practical considerations. Sports Med. 2016;46:641–656. PubMed ID: 26660758 doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0446-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Wagner H, Sperl B, Bell JW, von Duvillard SP. Testing specific physical performance in male team handball players and the relationship to general test in team sports. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33(4):1056–1064. PubMed ID: 30707133 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003026

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Romaratezabala E, Nakamura F, Ramirez-Campillo R, Castillo D, Rodríguez-Negro J, Yanci J. Differences in physical performance according to the competitive level in amateur handball players [published online ahead of print February 27, 2018]. J Strength Cond Res. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002533

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Krüger K, Pilat C, Uckert K, Frech T, Mooren FC. Physical performance profile of handball players is related to playing position and playing class. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28:117–125. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318291b713

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Haugen TA, Tønnessen E, Seiler S. Physical and physiological characteristics of male handball players: influence of playing position and competitive level. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2016;56:19–26. PubMed ID: 25389639

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Ben Abdelkrim N, Chaouachi A, Chamari K, Chtara M, Castagna C. Positional role and competitive-level differences in elite-level men’s basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1346–1355. PubMed ID: 20393355 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cf7510

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Boone J, Bourgois J. Morphological and physiological profile of elite basketball players in Belgium. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:630–638. PubMed ID: 23475191 doi:10.1123/ijspp.8.6.630

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Morin JB, Edouard P, Samozino P. Technical ability of force application as a determinant factor of sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1680–1688. PubMed ID: 21364480 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318216ea37

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Morin JB, Bourdin M, Edouard P, Peyrot N, Samozino P, Lacour JR. Mechanical determinants of 100-m sprint running performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112: 3921–3930. PubMed ID: 22422028 doi:10.1007/s00421-012-2379-8

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Samozino P, Rabita G, Dorel S, et al. A simple method for measuring power, force, velocity properties, and mechanical effectiveness in sprint running. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016;26:648–658. PubMed ID: 25996964 doi:10.1111/sms.12490

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Morin JB, Samozino P. Interpreting power-force-velocity profiles for individualized and specific training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11:267–272. PubMed ID: 26694658 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0638

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Cross MR, Brughelli M, Samozino P, Morin JB. Methods of power-force-velocity profiling during sprint running: a narrative review. Sports Med. 2017;47:1255–1269. PubMed ID: 27896682 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0653-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Rakovic E, Paulsen G, Helland C, Eriksrud O, Haugen T. The effect of individualised sprint training in elite female team sport athletes: a pilot study. J Sports Sci. 2018; 36:2802–2808. PubMed ID: 29741443 doi:10.1080/02640414.2018.1474536

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Morin JB, Samozino P. Spreadsheet for sprint acceleration force-velocity-power profiling. ResearchGate. 2017. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321767606_Spreadsheet_for_Sprint_acceleration_force-velocity-power_profiling. Accessed April 28, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Seiler S. The difference is in the start: impact of timing and start procedure on sprint running performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:473–479. PubMed ID: 22233797 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318226030b

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Svendsen I, Seiler S. Sprint time differences between single and dual beamed timing systems. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28:2376–2379. PubMed ID: 24531428 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000415

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Haugen T, Breitschädel F, Samozino P. Power-force-velocity profiling of sprinting athletes: methodological and practical considerations when using timing gates [published online ahead of print September 28, 2018]. J Strength Cond Res. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002890

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:3–13. PubMed ID: 19092709 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Gorostiaga EM, Granados C, Ibáñez J, Izquierdo M. Differences in physical fitness and throwing velocity among elite and amateur male handball players. Int J Sports Med. 2005;26:225–232. PubMed ID: 15776339 doi:10.1055/s-2004-820974

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Köklü Y, Alemdaroğlu U, Koçak FÜ, Erol AE, Fındıkoğlu G. Comparison of chosen physical fitness characteristics of Turkish professional basketball players by division and playing position. J Hum Kinet. 2011;30:99–106.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Delextrat A, Cohen D. Physiological testing of basketball players: toward a standard evaluation of anaerobic fitness. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22:1066–1072. PubMed ID: 18545206 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181739d9b

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Haugen T, Breitschädel F, Seiler S. Sprint mechanical variables in elite athletes: Are force-velocity profiles sport specific or individual? PLoS ONE. Published July 24, 2019. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215551.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Sindik J, Jukiç I. Differences in situation efficacy indicators at the elite basketball players that play on different positions in the team. Coll Antropol. 2011;35:1095–1104. PubMed ID: 22397244

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Uth N. Anthropometric comparison of world-class sprinters and normal populations. J Sports Sci Med. 2005;4:608–616. PubMed ID: 24501574

  • 32.

    Jiménez-Reyes P, Samozino P, Brughelli M, Morin JB. Effectiveness of an individualized training based on force-velocity profiling during jumping. Front Physiol. 2017;7:677.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Haugen T. Sprint conditioning of soccer players: worth the effort or lets just buy faster players. Sport Perform Sci Rep. 2017;v1.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 73 73 58
Full Text Views 15 15 11
PDF Downloads 9 9 6