Effects of Plyometric and Directional Training on Physical Fitness Parameters in Youth Soccer Players

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $107.00

1 year subscription

USD  $142.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $203.00

2 year subscription

USD  $265.00

Purpose: To investigate whether the combination of a soccer training session, plyometric training, and change-of-direction (COD) exercises would enhance soccer ability to a greater extent than training on its own in youth soccer players. Methods: Thirty-one youth players participated in this study (age: 12 [0.8] y). Players were randomly separated into 2 groups: a control group (CG, n = 14) and an intervention group that performed extra plyometric training and COD exercises (intervention group, n = 17). The duration of the training program was 6 wk. Players’ performances in sprint (10 and 30 m), countermovement jump, squat jump, long jump, multiple 5-bound, T-test, and Yo–Yo Intermittent Endurance Test 1 were measured before and after the training program. Results: Players’ performance in acceleration, T-test, and long jump improved in both groups (P = .03, P = .002, and P = .001, respectively). Squat-jump performance increased in the intervention group (15.2%, P = .003) and slightly decreased in the control group (P = .003). The performances of the 2 groups differed significantly in squat jump and long jump (P = .003 and P = .038, respectively). Conclusions: This study indicates that a short-term combined program of plyometric training and COD exercises can improve jumping ability, acceleration, and endurance parameters in youth soccer players. The small training effect could be explained when taking into account the level of the participants, the duration of the program, and the low volume of COD exercises used.

The authors are with the Laboratory of Evaluation of Human Biological Performance, Dept of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Michailidis (ioannimd@phed.auth.gr) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Carling C, Bloomfield J, Nelsen L, Reilly T. The role of motion analysis in elite soccer: contemporary performance measurement techniques and work rate data. Sports Med. 2008;38:839862. PubMed ID: 18803436 doi:10.2165/00007256-200838100-00004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Fatigue in soccer: a brief review. J Sports Sci. 2005;23:593599. PubMed ID: 16195008 doi:10.1080/02640410400021286

  • 3.

    Rampinini E, Coutts AJ, Castagna C, Sassi R, Impellizzeri FM. Variation in top level soccer match performance. Int J Sports Med.2007;28:10181024 doi:10.1055/s-2007-965158

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Reilly T, Bangsbo J, Franks A. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer. J Sports Sci. 2000;18:669683. PubMed ID: 11043893 doi:10.1080/02640410050120050

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Markovic G, Mikulic P. Neuro-musculoskeletal and performance adaptations to lower-extremity plyometric training. Sports Med. 2010;40:859895. PubMed ID: 20836583 doi:10.2165/11318370-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Wang YC, Zhang N. Effects of plyometric training on soccer players. Exp Ther Med. 2016;12:550554. PubMed ID: 27446242 doi:10.3892/etm.2016.3419

  • 7.

    Markovic G, Jukic I, Milanovic D, Metikos D. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21:543549. PubMed ID: 17530960

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Fatouros IG, Jamurtas AZ, Leontsini D, Marinos S, Kostopoulos N, Buckenmeyer PJ. Evaluation of plyometric exercise training, weight training, and their combination on vertical jumping performance and leg strength. J Strength Cond Res. 2000;14:470476.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA, Volek JS, Mazzetti SA, Gomez AL. The effect of the meridian shoe on vertical jump and sprint performances following short-term combined plyometric/sprint and resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. 2000;14:228238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Faigenbaum AD, Yap CW. Are plyometrics safe for children? Strength Cond J. 2000;22:4546. doi:10.1519/1533-4295(2000)022<0045:APSFC>2.0.CO;2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Beato M, Bianchi M, Coratella G, Merlini M, Drust B. Effects of plyometric and directional training on speed and jump performance in elite youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(2):289296. PubMed ID: 29176387

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Michailidis Y, Fatouros IG, Primpa E, et al. Plyometrics’ trainability in preadolescent soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(1):3849. PubMed ID: 22450257 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182541ec6

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Coratella G, Beato M, Schena F. The specificity of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test for recreational soccer players is independent of their intermittent running ability. Res Sport Med. 2016;24:363374. doi:10.1080/15438627.2016.1222279

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Zamparo P, Zadro I, Lazzer S, Beato M, Sepulcri L. Energetics of shuttle runs: the effects of distance and change of direction. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9:10331039. PubMed ID: 24700201 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2013-0258

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Mohr M, Draganidis D, Chatzinikolaou A, et al. Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three soccer games in 1 week in competitive male players. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116:179193. PubMed ID: 26377004 doi:10.1007/s00421-015-3245-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    American College of Sports Medicine. Plyometric Training for Children and Adolescents. ACSM Position Statement. Indianapolis, IN: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Slaughter MH, Lohman TG, Boileau RA, et al. Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Hum Biol. 1988;60:709723. PubMed ID: 3224965

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Durnin JV, Rahaman MM. The assessment of the amount of fat in the human body from measurements of skinfold thickness. Br J Nutr. 1967;21:681689. doi:10.1079/BJN19670070

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Siri WE. The gross composition of the body. Adv Biol Med Phys. 1956;4:239280. PubMed ID: 13354513 doi:10.1016/B978-1-4832-3110-5.50011-X

  • 20.

    Moore SA, McKay HA, Macdonald H, et al. Enhancing a somatic maturity prediction model. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(8):17551764. PubMed ID: 25423445 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000588

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Sherar LB, Mirwald RL, Baxter-Jones AD, Thomis M. Prediction of adult height using maturity-based cumulative height velocity curves. J Pediatr. 2005;147(4):508514. PubMed ID: 16227038 doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.04.041

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Meylan C, Malatesta D. Effects of in-season plyometric training within soccer practice on explosive actions of young players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:26052613. PubMed ID: 19910813 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b1f330

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Ingle L, Sleap M, Tolfrey K. The effect of a complex training and detraining programme on selected strength and power variables in early pubertal boys. J Sports Sci. 2006;24:987997. PubMed ID: 16882633 doi:10.1080/02640410500457117

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Diallo O, Dore E, Duche P, Van Praagh E. Effects of plyometric training followed by a reduced training programme on physical performance in prepubescent soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2001;41:342348.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Semenick D. Test and measurements: the T-test. Nat Strength Cond Assoc J. 1990;12(1):3637

  • 26.

    Kotzamanidis C. Effect of plyometric training on running performance and vertical jumping in prepubertal boys. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20:441445. PubMed ID: 16686577

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Thomas K, French D, Hayes PR. The effect of two plyometric training techniques on muscular power and agility in youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:332335. PubMed ID: 19002073 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318183a01a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Smits-Engelsman BC, Westenberg Y, Duysens J. Development of isometric force and force control in children. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2003;17:6874 doi:10.1016/S0926-6410(03)00081-8

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Baker D. Improving vertical jump performance through general, special, and specific strength training. J Strength Cond Res. 1996;10:131136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Manolopoulos E, Papadopoulos C, Salonikidis K, Katartzi E, Poluha S. Strength training effects on physical conditioning and instep kick kinematics in young amateur soccer players during preseason. Percept Mot Skills. 2004;99:701710. PubMed ID: 15560363 doi:10.2466/pms.99.2.701-710

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Spurrs RW, Murphy AJ, Watsford ML. The effect of plyometric training on distance running performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89:17. PubMed ID: 12627298 doi:10.1007/s00421-002-0741-y

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Santos EJ, Janeira MA. The effects of plyometric training followed by detraining and reduced training periods on explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:441452. PubMed ID: 20453686 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b62be3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Beunen G, Thomis M. Muscular strength development in children and adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2000;12:174197. doi:10.1123/pes.12.2.174

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 769 734 61
Full Text Views 32 31 2
PDF Downloads 22 22 1