Purpose: To provide a joint-level analysis of traditional (TS) and cluster (CS) set structure during the back-squat exercise. Methods: Eight men (24  y, 177.3 [7.9] cm, 82.7 [11.0] kg, 11.9 [3.5] % body fat, and 150.3 [23.0] kg 1-repetition maximum [1RM]) performed the back-squat exercise (80%1RM) using TS (4 × 6, 2-min interset rest) and CS (4 × [2 × 3], 30-s intraset rest, 90-s interset rest), randomly. Lower-limb kinematics were collected by motion capture, as well as kinetic data by bilateral force platforms. Results: CS attenuated the loss in mean power (TS −21.6% [3.9%]; CS −12.4% [7.5%]; P = .042), although no differences in gross movement pattern (sagittal-plane joint angles) within and between conditions were observed (P ≥ .05). However, joint power produced at the hip increased from repetition (REP) 1 through REP 6 during TS, while a decrease was noted at the knee. A similar pattern was observed in the CS condition but was limited to the hip. Joint power produced at the hip increased from REP 1 through REP 3 but returned to REP 1 values before a similar increase through REP 6, resulting in differences between conditions (REP 4, P = .018; REP 5, P = .022). Conclusions: Sagittal-plane joint angles did not change in either condition, although CS elicited greater power. Differing joint power contributions (hip and knee) suggest potential central mechanism that may contribute to enhanced power output during CS and warrant further study. Practitioners should consider incorporating CS into training to promote greater power adaptations and to mitigate fatigue.
Stone, King, Mata, and Oliver are with the Dept of Kinesiology, the Sport Science Center at Texas Christian University, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX. Goto, Hannon, Garrison, Bothwell, and Oliver are with Texas Health Sports Medicine, Fort Worth, TX. Jagim is with the Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, Dept of Exercise Science, Lindenwood University, St Charles, MO. Jones is with the Div of Health and Human Performance, Center for Sports Performance, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.
Oliver JM, Kreutzer A, Jenke SC, Phillips MD, Mitchell JB, Jones MT. Velocity drives greater power observed during back squat using cluster sets. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(1):235–243. PubMed ID: 26121432 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001023
Hardee JP, Lawrence MM, Zwetsloot KA, Triplett NT, Utter AC, McBride JM. Effect of cluster set configurations on power clean technique. J Sports Sci Med. 2013;31(5):488–496. PubMed ID: 23121475 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.736633
HardeeJP, LawrenceMM, ZwetslootKA, TriplettNT, UtterAC, McBrideJM. Effect of cluster set configurations on power clean technique. . 2013;31(5):488–496. PubMed ID: 23121475 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.736633)| false
HooperDR, SzivakTK, DiStefanoLJ, et al. Effects of resistance training fatigue on joint biomechanics. . 2013;27(1):146–153. PubMed ID: 23254489 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825390da10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825390da23254489)| false
McLeanSG, SamorezovJE. Fatigue-induced ACL injury risk stems from a degradation in central control. . 2009;41(8):1662–1673. PubMed ID: 19568192 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31819ca07b10.1249/MSS.0b013e31819ca07b)| false
Hooper DR, Szivak TK, Comstock BA, et al. Effects of fatigue from resistance training on barbell back squat biomechanics. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(4):1127–1134. PubMed ID: 24662156 doi:10.1097/JSC.0000000000000237
HooperDR, SzivakTK, ComstockBA, et al. Effects of fatigue from resistance training on barbell back squat biomechanics. . 2014;28(4):1127–1134. PubMed ID: 24662156 doi:10.1097/JSC.00000000000002372466215610.1097/JSC.0000000000000237)| false
Rasmussen GHF, Sloth ME, Kristiansen MV, Voigt M. Inter segmental coordination of competitive weightlifters during heavy back squatting. Paper presented at: 9th Annual Meeting of the Danish Society of Biomechanics; 2017; Aarhus, Denmark.
RasmussenGHF, SlothME, KristiansenMV, VoigtM. Inter segmental coordination of competitive weightlifters during heavy back squatting. Paper presented at: 9th Annual Meeting of the Danish Society of Biomechanics; 2017; Aarhus, Denmark.)| false
Farris DJ, Lichtwark GA, Brown NAT, Cresswell AG. Deconstructing the power resistance relationship for squats: a joint-level analysis. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016;26(7):774–781. PubMed ID: 26103786 doi:10.1111/sms.12508
CôtéJN, MathieuPA, LevinMF, FeldmanAG. Movement reorganization to compensate for fatigue during sawing. . 2002;146(3):394–398. PubMed ID: 12232697 doi:10.1007/s00221-002-1186-610.1007/s00221-002-1186-612232697)| false
Oliver JM, Jagim AR, Sanchez AC, et al. Greater gains in strength and power with intraset rest intervals in hypertrophic training. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(11):3116–3131. PubMed ID: 23736782 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182891672
OliverJM, JagimAR, SanchezAC, et al. Greater gains in strength and power with intraset rest intervals in hypertrophic training. . 2013;27(11):3116–3131. PubMed ID: 23736782 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828916722373678210.1519/JSC.0b013e3182891672)| false
Taylor JL, Todd G, Gandevia SC. Evidence for a supraspinal contribution to human muscle fatigue. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33(4):400–405. PubMed ID: 16620309 doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2006.04363.x
TaylorJL, ToddG, GandeviaSC. Evidence for a supraspinal contribution to human muscle fatigue. . 2006;33(4):400–405. PubMed ID: 16620309 doi:10.1111/j.1440-1681.2006.04363.x10.1111/j.1440-1681.2006.04363.x16620309)| false