No Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on 100-m and 200-m Swimming Performance in Moderately Trained Swimmers

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $107.00

1 year subscription

USD $142.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $203.00

2 year subscription

USD $265.00

Purpose: Dietary nitrate supplementation has been reported to improve performance in kayaking and rowing exercise, which mandate significant recruitment of the upper-body musculature. Because the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on swimming performance is unclear, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on 100-m and 200-m swimming freestyle time-trial (TT) performance. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized crossover design, 10 moderately trained swimmers underwent 2 separate 3-d supplementation periods, with a daily dose of either 140 mL nitrate-rich (∼800 mg/d nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (PLA) beetroot juice (BRJ). After blood sampling on day 3, the swimmers performed both 200-m and 100-m freestyle swimming TTs, with 30 min recovery between trials. Results: Plasma nitrite concentration was greater after BRJ relative to PLA consumption (432 [203] nmol/L, 111 [56] nmol/L, respectively, P = .001). Systolic blood pressure was lowered after BRJ compared with PLA supplementation (114 [10], 120 [10] mm Hg, respectively P = .001), but time to complete the 200-m (BRJ 152.6 [14.1] s, PLA 152.5 [14.1] s) and 100-m (BRJ 69.5 [7.2] s, PLA 69.4 [7.4] s) freestyle swimming TTs was not different between BRJ and PLA (P > .05). Conclusions: Although 3 d of BRJ supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentration and lowered blood pressure, it did not improve 100-m and 200-m swimming TT performance. These results do not support an ergogenic effect of nitrate supplementation in moderately trained swimmers, at least for 100-m and 200-m freestyle swimming performance.

Esen, Nicholas, and Morris are with the Clinical Sciences and Nutrition Dept, University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom. Esen is also with the Dept of Health Professions, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom. Bailey is with the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.

Esen (ozcan.esen@mmu.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Lundberg JOWeitzberg E. NO generation from inorganic nitrate and nitrite: role in physiology, nutrition and therapeutics. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32(8):11191126. PubMed ID: 19727604 doi:10.1007/s12272-009-1803-z

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Jones AM. Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance. Sports Med. 2014;44(1):3545. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0149-y

  • 3.

    Porcelli SRamaglia MBellistri Get al. Aerobic fitness affects the exercise performance responses to nitrate supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(8):16431651. PubMed ID: 25412295 doi:10.1249/MSS0000000000000577

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Wylie LJKelly JBailey SJet al. Beetroot juice and exercise: pharmacodynamic and dose-response relationships. J Appl Physiol. 2013;115(3):325336. PubMed ID: 23640589 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00372.2013

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Wylie LJMohr MKrustrup Pet al. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113(7):16731684. PubMed ID: 23370859 doi:10.1007/s00421-013-2589-8

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Peeling PCox GRBullock NBurke LM. Beetroot juice improves on-water 500 m time-trial performance, and laboratory-based paddling economy in national and international-level kayak athletes. Int J Sport Nutrition Exerc Metab. 2015;25(3):278284. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0110

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hoon MWJones AMJohnson NAet al. The effect of variable doses of inorganic nitrate-rich beetroot juice on simulated 2000-m rowing performance in trained athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(4):615620. PubMed ID: 24085341 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2013-0207

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Calbet JGonzalez-Alonso JHelge Jet al. Central and peripheral hemodynamics in exercising humans: leg vs arm exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25:144157. doi:10.1111/sms.12604

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Kang JRobertson RJGoss FLet al. Metabolic efficiency during arm and leg exercise at the same relative intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29(3):377382. PubMed ID: 9139177 doi:10.1097/00005768-199703000-00013

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Modin ABjörne HHerulf MAlving KWeitzberg ELundberg J. Nitrite-derived nitric oxide: a possible mediator of ‘acidic–metabolic’ vasodilation. Acta Physiol Scand. 2001;171(1):916. PubMed ID: 11350258

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Richards JCRacine MLHearon CMet al. Acute ingestion of dietary nitrate increases muscle blood flow via local vasodilation during handgrip exercise in young adults. Physiol Rep. 2018;6(2):13572. doi:10.14814/phy2.13572

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Craig JCBroxterman RMSmith JRAllen JDBarstow TJ. Effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on conduit artery blood flow, muscle oxygenation, and metabolic rate during handgrip exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2018;125(2):254262. PubMed ID: 29722627 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00772.2017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Notay KIncognito AVMillar PJ. Acute beetroot juice supplementation on sympathetic nerve activity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313(1):H5965. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00163.2017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Morouço PGMarinho DAIzquierdo MNeiva HMarques MC. Relative contribution of arms and legs in 30 s fully tethered front crawl swimming. BioMed Res Int. 2015;2015:563206. PubMed ID: 26539511 doi:10.1155/2015/563206

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Spanoudaki SMaridaki MMyrianthefs PBaltopoulos P. Exercise induced arterial hypoxemia in swimmers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2004;44(4):342. PubMed ID: 15758844

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Kelly JVanhatalo ABailey SJet al. Dietary nitrate supplementation: effects on plasma nitrite and pulmonary O2 uptake dynamics during exercise in hypoxia and normoxia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014;307(7):R920R930. PubMed ID: 25009219 doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00068.2014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Castello PRDavid PSMcClure TCrook ZPoyton RO. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase produces nitric oxide under hypoxic conditions: implications for oxygen sensing and hypoxic signaling in eukaryotes. Cell Metab. 2006;3(4):277287. PubMed ID: 16581005 doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2006.02.011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Engan HKJones AMEhrenberg FSchagatay E. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves dry static apnea performance. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012;182(2):5359. doi:10.1016/j.resp.2012.05.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Jonvik KLVan Dijk J-WSenden JMVan Loon LJVerdijk LB. The effect of beetroot juice supplementation on dynamic apnea and intermittent sprint performance in elite female water polo players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2018;28(5):468473. PubMed ID: 29252047 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0293

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Patrician ASchagatay E. Dietary nitrate enhances arterial oxygen saturation after dynamic apnea. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;27(6):622626. PubMed ID: 27037996 doi:10.1111/sms.12684

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Maglischo EW. Swimming Fastest. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2003.

  • 22.

    Lowings SShannon OMDeighton KMatu JBarlow MJ. Effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on swimming performance in trained swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2017:27(4):377384. PubMed ID: 28182502 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0251

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Pinna MRoberto SMilia Ret al. Effect of beetroot juice supplementation on aerobic response during swimming. Nutrients. 2014;6(2):605615. PubMed ID: 24481133 doi:10.3390/nu6020605

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Bonifazi MMartelli GMarugo LSardella FCarli G. Blood lactate accumulation in top level swimmers following competition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1993;33(1):1318. PubMed ID: 8350602

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Govoni MJansson Weitzberg ELundberg JO. The increase in plasma nitrite after a dietary nitrate load is markedly attenuated by an antibacterial mouthwash. Nitric Oxide. 2008;19(4):333337. PubMed ID: 18793740 doi:10.1016/j.niox.2008.08.003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Lindh APeyrebrune MIngham SBailey DFolland J. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29(6):519523. doi:10.1055/s-2007-989228

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Vanhatalo ABailey SJBlackwell JRet al. Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299(4):R1121R1131. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00206.2010

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Carlström MLundberg JOWeitzberg E. Mechanisms underlying blood pressure reduction by dietary inorganic nitrate. Acta Physiol(Oxf). 2242018:e13080. doi:10.1111/apha.13080

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Omar SWebb ALundberg JWeitzberg E. Therapeutic effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. J Intern Med. 2016;279(4):315336. PubMed ID: 26522443 doi:10.1111/joim.12441

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Palmer AJBulpitt CJFletcher AEet al. Relation between blood pressure and stroke mortality. Hypertension. 1992;20(5):601605. PubMed ID: 1428110 doi:10.1161/01.HYP.20.5.601

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 390 390 65
Full Text Views 47 47 12
PDF Downloads 23 23 6
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By