Associations Between Selected Training-Stress Measures and Fitness Changes in Male Soccer Players

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $107.00

1 year subscription

USD $142.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $203.00

2 year subscription

USD $265.00

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between accumulated global positioning system–accelerometer-based and heart rate–based training metrics and changes in high-intensity intermittent-running capacity during an in-season phase in professional soccer players. Methods: Eleven male professional players (mean [SD] age 27.2 [4.5] y) performed the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) before and after a 5-wk in-season training phase, and the final velocity (VIFT) was considered their high-intensity intermittent-running capacity. During all sessions, Edwards training impulse (Edwards TRIMP), Banister TRIMP, Z5 TRIMP, training duration, total distance covered, new body load (NBL), high-intensity running performance (distance covered above 14.4 km·h−1), and very-high-intensity running performance (distance covered above 19.8 km·h−1) were recorded. Results: The players’ VIFT showed a most likely moderate improvement (+4.3%, 90% confidence limits 3.1–5.5%, effect size 0.70, [0.51–0.89]). Accumulated NBL, Banister TRIMP, and Edwards TRIMP showed large associations (r = .51–.54) with changes in VIFT. A very large relationship was also observed between accumulated Z5 TRIMP (r = .72) with changes in VIFT. Large to nearly perfect within-individual relationships were observed between NBL and some of the other training metrics (ie, Edwards TRIMP, Banister TRIMP, training duration, and total distance) in 10 out of 11 players. Conclusions: Heart rate–based training metrics can be used to monitor high-intensity intermittent-running-capacity changes in professional soccer players. The dose–response relationship is also largely detected using accelerometer-based metrics (ie, NBL) to track changes in high-intensity intermittent-running capacity of professional soccer players.

Rabbani and Kargarfard are with the Dept of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran, and the Medical and Performance Dept, Sporting Clube de Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal. Castagna is with the Football Training and Biomechanics Laboratory, Technical Dept, Italian Football Association (FIGC), Coverciano, Florence, Italy; and the University of Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. Clemente is with the School of Sport and Leisure, Polytechnical Inst of Viana do Castelo, Melgaço, Portugal, and the Inst of Telecommunications, Delegation of Covilhã, Lisboa, Portugal. Twist is with the Dept of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Chester, Chester, United Kingdom.

Kargarfard (m.kargarfard@spr.ui.ac.ir) is corresponding author.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Stolen TChamari KCastagna CWisloff U. Physiology of soccer: an update. Sports Med. 2005;35:501536. PubMed ID: 15974635 doi:10.2165/00007256-200535060-00004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Castagna CImpellizzeri FCecchini ERampinini EAlvarez JC. Effects of intermittent-endurance fitness on match performance in young male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23:19541959. PubMed ID: 19855318 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b7f743

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Buchheit MRabbani A. The 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test versus the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1: relationship and sensitivity to training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9:522524. PubMed ID: 23475226 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2012-0335

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Jeong TSReilly TMorton JBae SWDrust B. Quantification of the physiological loading of one week of “pre-season” and one week of “in-season” training in professional soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2011;29:11611166. PubMed ID: 21777053 doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.583671

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Impellizzeri FMRampinini EMarcora SM. Physiological assessment of aerobic training in soccer. J Sports Sci. 2005;23:583592. PubMed ID: 16195007 doi:10.1080/02640410400021278

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Akenhead RNassis GP. Training load and player monitoring in high-level football: current practice and perceptions. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11:587593. PubMed ID: 26456711 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0331

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Rabbani AKargarfard MTwist C. Fitness monitoring in elite soccer players: group vs. individual analyses [published online ahead of print June 14 2018]. J Strength Cond Res. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002700

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Cummins COrr RO’Connor HWest C. Global positioning systems (GPS) and microtechnology sensors in team sports: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2013;43:10251042. PubMed ID: 23812857 doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0069-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Impellizzeri FMRampinini ECoutts AJSassi AMarcora SM. Use of RPE-based training load in soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:10421047. PubMed ID: 15179175 doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000128199.23901.2F

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Akubat IPatel EBarrett SAbt G. Methods of monitoring the training and match load and their relationship to changes in fitness in professional youth soccer players. J Sports Sci. 2012;30:14731480. PubMed ID: 22857397 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.712711

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Jaspers ABrink MSProbst SGFrencken WGHelsen WF. Relationships between training load indicators and training outcomes in professional soccer. Sports Med. 2017:47:533544. PubMed ID: 27459866 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0591-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Taylor RSanders DMyers TAbt GTaylor CAAkubat I. The dose-response relationship between training load and aerobic fitness in academy rugby union players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13:163169. PubMed ID: 28530450 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2017-0121

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Castagna CImpellizzeri FMChaouachi ABordon CManzi V. Effect of training intensity distribution on aerobic fitness variables in elite soccer players: a case study. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:6671. PubMed ID: 21150673 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181fef3d3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Castagna CImpellizzeri FMChaouachi AManzi V. Preseason variations in aerobic fitness and performance in elite-standard soccer players: a team study. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:29592965. PubMed ID: 23442266 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828d61a8

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Manzi VBovenzi AImpellizzeri MFCarminati ICastagna C. Individual training-load and aerobic-fitness variables in premiership soccer players during the precompetitive season. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:631636. PubMed ID: 22648141 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825dbd81

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Fitzpatrick JFHicks KMHayes PR. Dose-response relationship between training load and changes in aerobic fitness in professional youth soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13:13651370.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Campos-Vazquez MAToscano-Bendala FJMora-Ferrera JCSuarez-Arrones LJ. Relationship between internal load indicators and changes on intermittent performance after the preseason in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31:14771485. PubMed ID: 28538295 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001613

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Barreira PRobinson MADrust BNedergaard NRaja Azidin RMFVanrenterghem J. Mechanical Player Load™ using trunk-mounted accelerometry in football: is it a reliable, task-and player-specific observation? J Sports Sci. 2017;35:16741681. PubMed ID: 27598850 doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1229015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Gomez-Piriz PTJiménez-Reyes PRuiz-Ruiz C. Relation between total body load and session rating of perceived exertion in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:21002103. PubMed ID: 21685808 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181fb4587

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Scott BRLockie RGKnight TJClark ACde Jonge XAKJ. A comparison of methods to quantify the in-season training load of professional soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8:195202. PubMed ID: 23428492 doi:10.1123/ijspp.8.2.195

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Casamichana DCastellano JCalleja-Gonzalez JSan Román JCastagna C. Relationship between indicators of training load in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:369374. PubMed ID: 22465992 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182548af1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Buchheit M. The 30-15 intermittent fitness test: accuracy for individualizing interval training of young intermittent sport players. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22:365374. PubMed ID: 18550949 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181635b2e

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Ehrmann FEDuncan CSSindhusake DFranzsen WNGreene DA. GPS and injury prevention in professional soccer. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30:360367. PubMed ID: 26200191 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001093

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Edwards S. The Heart Rate Monitor BookSacramento, CA: Fleet Feet Press. 1993.

  • 25.

    Morton RHFitz-Clarke JRBanister EW. Modeling human performance in running. J Appl Physiol. 1985;69:11711177. doi:10.1152/jappl.1990.69.31171

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Batterham AMHopkins WG. Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2006;1:5057. PubMed ID: 19114737 doi:10.1123/ijspp.1.1.50

  • 27.

    Hopkins WMarshall SBatterham AHanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:313. PubMed ID: 19092709 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Hopkins W. Precision of the estimate of a subject’s true value (Excel spreadsheet). In: A New View of Statistics. Internet Society for Sport Science; 2000. sportsci.org/resource/stats/xprecisionsubject.xls

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Akenhead RFrench DThompson KGHayes PR. The physiological consequences of acceleration during shuttle running. Int J Sports Med. 2015;36:302307. PubMed ID: 25415387 doi:10.1055/s-0034-1389968

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Buchheit MLaursen PB. High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Part II: anaerobic energy, neuromuscular load and practical applications. Sports Med. 2013;43:927954. PubMed ID: 23832851 doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0066-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 146 146 42
Full Text Views 20 20 3
PDF Downloads 13 13 3
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar