Impairment of Cycling Capacity in the Heat in Well-Trained Endurance Athletes After High-Intensity Short-Term Heat Acclimation

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $107.00

1 year subscription

USD $142.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $203.00

2 year subscription

USD $265.00

Purpose: To investigate the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval-training (HIIT) heat acclimation (HA). Methods: Male cyclists/triathletes were assigned into either an HA (n = 13) or a comparison (COMP, n = 10) group. HA completed 3 cycling heat stress tests (HSTs) to exhaustion (60% Wmax; HST1, pre-HA; HST2, post-HA; HST3, 7 d post-HA). HA consisted of 30-min bouts of HIIT cycling (6 min at 50% Wmax, then 12 × 1-min 100%-Wmax bouts with 1-min rests between bouts) on 5 consecutive days. COMP completed HST1 and HST2 only. HST and HA trials were conducted in 35°C/50% relative humidity. Cycling capacity and physiological and perceptual data were recorded. Results: Cycling capacity was impaired after HIIT HA (77.2 [34.2] min vs 56.2 [24.4] min, P = .03) and did not return to baseline after 7 d of no HA (59.2 [37.4] min). Capacity in HST1 and HST2 was similar in COMP (43.5 [8.3] min vs 46.8 [15.7] min, P = .54). HIIT HA lowered resting rectal (37.0°C [0.3°C] vs 36.8°C [0.2°C], P = .05) and body temperature (36.0°C [0.3°C] vs 35.8°C [0.3°C], P = .03) in HST2 compared with HST1 and lowered mean skin temperature (35.4°C [0.5°C] vs 35.1°C [0.3°C], P = .02) and perceived strain on day 5 compared with day 1 of HA. All other data were unaffected. Conclusions: Cycling capacity was impaired in the heat after 5 d of consecutive HIIT HA despite some heat adaptation. Based on data, this approach is not recommended for athletes preparing to compete in the heat; however, it is possible that it may be beneficial if a state of overreaching is avoided.

Reeve, Gordon, and Tyler are with the Dept of Life Sciences, University of Roehampton, London, United Kingdom. Laursen is with Sports Performance Research Inst New Zealand, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. Lee is with the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Reeve (T.Reeve@roehampton.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Guy JHDeakin GBEdwards AMMiller CMPyne DB. Adaptation to hot environmental conditions: an exploration of the performance basis, procedures and future directions to optimise opportunities for elite athletes. Sports Med. 2015;45(3):303311. PubMed ID: 25380791 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0277-4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Tatterson AJHahn AGMartin DTFebbraio MA. Effects of heat stress on physiological responses and exercise performance in elite cyclists. J Sci Med Sport. 2000;3(2):186193. PubMed ID: 11104310 doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(00)80080-8

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Taylor NA. Human heat adaptation. Compr Physiol. 2014;4(1):325365. PubMed ID: 24692142 doi:10.1002/cphy.c130022

  • 4.

    Tyler CJReeve THodges GJCheung SS. The effects of heat adaptation on physiology, perception and exercise performance in the heat: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2016;46(11):16991724. PubMed ID: 27106556 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0538-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Periard JDRacinais STimpka Tet al. Strategies and factors associated with preparing for competing in the heat: a cohort study at the 2015 IAAF World Athletics Championships. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51(4):264270. PubMed ID: 27815238 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096579

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Laursen PB. Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(suppl 2):110. PubMed ID: 20840557 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01184.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Seiler S. What is best practice for training intensity and duration distribution in endurance athletes? Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010;5(3):276291. PubMed ID: 20861519 doi:10.1123/ijspp.5.3.276

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Houmard JACostill DLDavis JAMitchell JBPascoe DDRobergs RA. The influence of exercise intensity on heat acclimation in trained subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22(5):615620. PubMed ID: 2233200 doi:10.1249/00005768-199010000-00012

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Kelly MGastin PBDwyer DBSostaric SSnow RJ. Short duration heat acclimation in Australian football players. J Sports Sci Med. 2016;15(1):118125. PubMed ID: 26957934

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Schmit CDuffield RHausswirth CBrisswalter JLe Meur Y. Optimizing heat acclimation for endurance athletes: high- vs low-intensity training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(6):816823. PubMed ID: 28872380 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2017-0007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Wingfield GLGale RMinett GMMarino FESkein M. The effect of high versus low intensity heat acclimation on performance and neuromuscular responses. J Therm Biol. 2016;58:5059. PubMed ID: 27157334 doi:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2016.02.006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Gibson ORDennis AParfitt TTaylor LWatt PWMaxwell NS. Extracellular Hsp72 concentration relates to a minimum endogenous criteria during acute exercise-heat exposure. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2014;19(3):389400. PubMed ID: 24085588 doi:10.1007/s12192-013-0468-1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand and American Heart Association. Recommendations for cardiovascular screening, staffing, and emergency policies at health/fitness facilities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(6):10091018.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Kuipers HVerstappen FTKeizer HAGeurten Pvan Kranenburg G. Variability of aerobic performance in the laboratory and its physiologic correlates. Int J Sports Med. 1985;6(4):197201. PubMed ID: 4044103 doi:10.1055/s-2008-1025839

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Ramanathan NL. A new weighting system for mean surface temperature of the human body. J Appl Physiol. 1964;19(3):531533. PubMed ID: 14173555 doi:10.1152/jappl.1964.19.3.531

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Burton AC. Human calorimetry. 2. The average temperature of the tissues of the body. J Nutr. 1935;9:261280.

  • 17.

    Borg G. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1970;2(2):9298.

  • 18.

    Young AJSawka MNEpstein YDecristofano BPandolf KB. Cooling different body surfaces during upper and lower body exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1985;63(3):12181223.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Dill DBCostill DL. Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol. 1974;37(2):247248. PubMed ID: 4850854 doi:10.1152/jappl.1974.37.2.247

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1988.

  • 21.

    Armstrong LEFrancesconi RPKraemer WJLeva NDe Luca JPHubbard RW. Plasma cortisol, renin, and aldosterone during an intense heat acclimation program. Int J Sports Med. 1989;10(1):3842. PubMed ID: 2649446 doi:10.1055/s-2007-1024871

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Garrett ATCreasy RRehrer NJPatterson MJCotter JD. Effectiveness of short-term heat acclimation for highly trained athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(5):18271837. PubMed ID: 21915701 doi:10.1007/s00421-011-2153-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Gibson ORTurner GTuttle JATaylor LWatt PWMaxwell NS. Heat acclimation attenuates physiological strain and the HSP72, but not HSP90α, mRNA response to acute normobaric hypoxia. J Appl Physiol.2015; 119(8):889899. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00332.2015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Garrett ATGoosens NGRehrer NJPatterson MJCotter JD. Induction and decay of short-term heat acclimation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;107(6):659670. PubMed ID: 19727796 doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1182-7

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Sunderland CMorris JGNevill ME. A heat acclimation protocol for team sports. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42(5):327333. PubMed ID: 18460609 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.034207

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Pandolf KBBurse RLGoldman RF. Role of physical fitness in heat acclimatisation, decay and reinduction. Ergonomics. 1977;20(4):399408. doi:10.1080/00140137708931642

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Senay LCMitchell DWyndham CH. Acclimatization in a hot, humid environment: body fluid adjustments. J Appl Physiol. 1976;40(5):786796. PubMed ID: 931907 doi:10.1152/jappl.1976.40.5.786

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Sawka MNWenger CBPandolf KB. Thermoregulatory responses to acute exercise-heat stress and heat acclimation. In: Comprehensive Physiology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Aubry AHausswirth CLouis JCoutts AJLe Meur Y. Functional overreaching: the key to peak performance during the taper? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(9):17691777. PubMed ID: 25134000 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000301

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 145 145 50
Full Text Views 29 29 7
PDF Downloads 16 16 3
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By