The Impact of Training Load on Sleep During a 14-Day Training Camp in Elite, Adolescent, Female Basketball Players

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $107.00

1 year subscription

USD  $142.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $203.00

2 year subscription

USD  $265.00

Purpose: To quantify the sleep/wake behaviors of adolescent, female basketball players and to examine the impact of daily training load on sleep/wake behaviors during a 14-day training camp. Methods: Elite, adolescent, female basketball players (N = 11) had their sleep/wake behaviors monitored using self-report sleep diaries and wrist-worn activity monitors during a 14-day training camp. Each day, players completed 1 to 5 training sessions (session duration: 114 [54] min). Training load was determined using the session rating of perceived exertion model in arbitrary units. Daily training loads were summated across sessions on each day and split into tertiles corresponding to low, moderate, and high training load categories, with rest days included as a separate category. Separate linear mixed models and effect size analyses were conducted to assess differences in sleep/wake behaviors among daily training load categories. Results: Sleep onset and offset times were delayed (P < .05) on rest days compared with training days. Time in bed and total sleep time were longer (P < .05) on rest days compared with training days. Players did not obtain the recommended 8 to 10 hours of sleep per night on training days. A moderate increase in sleep efficiency was evident during days with high training loads compared with low. Conclusions: Elite, adolescent, female basketball players did not consistently meet the sleep duration recommendations of 8 to 10 hours per night during a 14-day training camp. Rest days delayed sleep onset and offset times, resulting in longer sleep durations compared with training days. Sleep/wake behaviors were not impacted by variations in the training load administered to players.

Lastella, Roach, Vincent, and Sargent are with the Appleton Inst for Behavioural Science, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Scanlan is with the Human Exercise and Training Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia. Halson is with the School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Lastella (m.lastella@cqu.edu.au) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Belenky G, Wesensten N, Thorne D, et al. Patterns of performance degradation and restoration during sleep restriction and subsequent recovery: a sleep dose-response study. J Sleep Res. 2003;12(1):112. PubMed ID: 12603781 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2869.2003.00337.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Dattilo M, Antunes H, Medeiros A, et al. Sleep and muscle recovery: endocrinological and molecular basis for a new and promising hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2011;77(2):220222. PubMed ID: 21550729 doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2011.04.017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Fullagar H, Skorski S, Duffield R, Hammes D, Coutts A, Meyer T. Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Sports Med. 2015;45(2):161186. PubMed ID: 25315456 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0260-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Tuomilehto H, Vuorinen V, Penttilä E, et al. Sleep of professional athletes: underexploited potential to improve health and performance. J Sports Sci. 2017;35(7):704710. PubMed ID: 27173843 doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1184300

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Sargent C, Lastella M, Halson S, Roach G. The impact of training schedules on the sleep and fatigue of elite athletes. Chronobiol Int. 2014;31(10):11601168. PubMed ID: 25222347 doi:10.3109/07420528.2014.957306

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Thornton H, Duthie G, Pitchford N, Delaney J, Benton D, Dascombe B. Effects of a 2-week high-intensity training camp on sleep activity of professional rugby league athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(7):928933. PubMed ID: 27918662 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0414

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Crowley S, Carskadon M. Modifications to weekend recovery sleep delay circadian phase in older adolescents. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27(7):14691492. PubMed ID: 20795887 doi:10.3109/07420528.2010.503293

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert S, et al. National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep Health. 2015;1(1):4043. PubMed ID: 29073412 doi:10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Carskadon M. Sleep in adolescents: the perfect storm. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2011;58(3):637647. PubMed ID: 21600346 doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2011.03.003

  • 10.

    Saw A, Halson S, Mujika I. Monitoring athletes during training camps: observations and translatable strategies from elite road cyclists and swimmers. Sports. 2018;6(3):63. doi:10.3390/sports6030063

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Roach G, Schmidt W, Aughey R, et al. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600). Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(suppl 1):i114i120. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092843

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Sargent C, Schmidt W, Aughey R, et al. The impact of altitude on the sleep of young elite soccer players (ISA3600). Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(suppl 1):i86i92. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092829

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Sargent C, Halson S, Roach GD. Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(suppl 1):S310S315. doi:10.1080/17461391.2012.696711

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Klusemann M, Pyne D, Hopkins W, Drinkwater E. Activity profiles and demands of seasonal and tournament basketball competition. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(6):623629. PubMed ID: 23479394 doi:10.1123/ijspp.8.6.623

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Lupo C, Tessitore A, Gasperi L, Gomez M. Session-RPE for quantifying the load of different youth basketball training sessions. Biol Sport. 2017;1(1):1117. PubMed ID: 28416891 doi:10.5114/biolsport.2017.63381

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Fox J, Scanlan A, Stanton R. A review of player monitoring approaches in basketball: current trends and future directions. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(7):20212029. PubMed ID: 28445227 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001964

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Aoki M, Ronda L, Marcelino P, et al. Monitoring training loads in professional basketball players engaged in a periodized training program. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(2):348358. PubMed ID: 27243913

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Hausswirth C, Louis J, Aubry A, Bonnet G, Duffield R, Le Meur Y. Evidence of disturbed sleep and increased illness in overreached endurance athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(5):10361045. PubMed ID: 24091995 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000177

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Sargent C, Lastella M, Halson S, Roach G. The validity of activity monitors for measuring sleep in elite athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;19(10):848853. PubMed ID: 26794719 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Lastella M, Roach G, Halson S, Sargent C. Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports. Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15(2):94100. PubMed ID: 24993935 doi:10.1080/17461391.2014.932016

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Foster C, Florhaug J, Franklin J, et al. A new approach to monitoring exercise training. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(1):109115. PubMed ID: 11708692

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Hopkins W, Marshall S, Batterham A, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):313. PubMed ID: 19092709 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Staunton C, Gordon B, Custovic E, Stanger J, Kingsley M. Sleep patterns and match performance in elite Australian basketball athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20(8):786789. PubMed ID: 28169152 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.016

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Heishman A, Curtis M, Saliba E, Hornett R, Malin S, Weltman A. Comparing performance during morning vs afternoon training sessions in intercollegiate basketball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(6):15571562. PubMed ID: 28538305 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001882

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Suppiah H, Low C, Chia M. Effects of sports training on sleep characteristics of Asian adolescent athletes. Biol Rhythm Res. 2015;46(4):523536. doi:10.1080/09291016.2015.1026673

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Milewski M, Skaggs D, Bishop G, et al. Chronic lack of sleep is associated with increased sports injuries in adolescent athletes. J Pediatr Orthop. 2014;34(2):129133. PubMed ID: 25028798 doi:10.1097/BPO.0000000000000151

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Scanlan A, Wen N, Tucker P, Borges N, Dalbo V. Training mode’s influences on the relationships between training-load models during basketball conditioning. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(5):851856. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2013-0410

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Knufinke M, Nieuwenhuys A, Geurts S, et al. Train hard, sleep well? Perceived training load, sleep quantity and sleep stage distribution in elite level athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2018;21(4):427432. PubMed ID: 28754605 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.07.003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Oda S, Shirakawa K. Sleep onset is disrupted following pre-sleep exercise that causes large physiological excitement at bedtime. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;114(9):17891799. PubMed ID: 24859750 doi:10.1007/s00421-014-2873-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Borresen J, Lambert M. Quantifying training load: a comparison of subjective and objective methods. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2008;3(1):1630. PubMed ID: 19193951 doi:10.1123/ijspp.3.1.16

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Bourdon P, Cardinale M, Murray A, et al. Monitoring athlete training loads: consensus statement. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(suppl 2):S2161S2170. PubMed ID: 28463642 doi:10.1123/IJSPP.2017-0208

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 333 333 39
Full Text Views 17 17 4
PDF Downloads 14 14 3