Relationships Between External- and Internal-Workload Variables in an Elite Female Netball Team and Between Playing Positions

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $112.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $149.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $213.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $284.00

Purpose: To examine relationships between external- and internal-workload variables in an elite female netball team, with consideration of positional differences. Methods: Nine elite female netball athletes had their weekly workloads monitored across their preseason and competition phases of a season. Internal workload was determined using summated heart-rate (HR) zones and session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), whereas external workload was determined using inertial movement units and included absolute PlayerLoad (PL), relative PL (PL per minute), accelerations (ACCEL), decelerations (DECEL), jumps, changes of direction (COD), high-intensity events, medium-intensity events, low-intensity events, PL in the forward direction, PL in the sideways direction, and PL in the vertical direction. Relationships between external- and internal-workload variables in the team and relative to playing position were examined. Results: Across the team, the strongest external workloads that correlated with summated HR zones were PL (r = .65), COD (r = .64), ACCEL (r = .61), and DECEL (r = .61). The strongest external workloads that correlated with sRPE were COD (r = .79), followed by jumps (r = .76), ACCEL (r = .75), and DECEL (r = .75). For all positions, except-goal shooter, the strongest correlation was between PL and sRPE (r = .88–.94). In the goal-shooter position, the strongest correlation was between summated HR zones and DECEL (r = .89). Conclusions: The inertial movement unit-derived external-workload variables are strongly related to common internal-workload variables. In particular, COD and sRPE appear to provide a good monitoring combination of external and internal training loads for elite netball players.

Simpson, Jenkins, and Kelly are with the School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Simpson is also with Queensland Firebirds, Netball Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Scanlan is with the School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia. Kelly is also with the School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Simpson (marni.simpson@uq.edu.au) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Bourdon PC, Cardinale M, Murray A, et al. Monitoring athlete training loads: consensus statement. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(suppl 2):S2161S2170. PubMed ID: 28463642 doi:10.1123/IJSPP.2017-0208

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Cummins C, Orr R, O’Connor H, West C. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and microtechnology sensors in team sports: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2013;43(10):10251042. PubMed ID: 23812857 doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0069-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    McLaren S, Macpherson T, Coutts A, Hurst C, Spears I, Weston M. The relationships between internal and external measures of training load and intensity in team sports: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2018;48(3):641658. PubMed ID: 29288436 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0830-z

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Sathyan T, Shuttleworth R, Hedley M, Davids K. Validity and reliability of a radio positioning system for tracking athletes in indoor and outdoor team sports. Behav Res Methods. 2012;44(4):11081114. PubMed ID: 22477436 doi:10.3758/s13428-012-0192-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Chambers R, Gabbett TJ, Cole MH, Beard A. The use of wearable microsensors to quantify sport-specific movements. Sports Med. 2015;45(7):10651081. PubMed ID: 25834998 doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0332-9

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Boyd LJ, Ball K, Aughey RJ. The reliability of minimaxX accelerometers for measuring physical activity in Australian football. Int J Sports Physiol Perf. 2011;6(3):311321. doi:10.1123/ijspp.6.3.311

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Boyd LJ, Ball K, Aughey RJ. Quantifying external load in Australian football matches and training using accelerometers. Int J Sports Physiol Perf. 2013;8(1):4451. doi:10.1123/ijspp.8.1.44

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Gabbett JT. Relationship between accelerometer load, collisions, and repeated high-intensity effort activity in rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(12):34243431. PubMed ID: 26196661 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Scanlan A, Dascombe B, Reaburn P. A comparison of the activity demands of elite and sub-elite Australian men’s basketball competition. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(11):11531160. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.582509

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Schelling X, Torres L. Accelerometer load profiles of basketball-specific drills in elite players. J Sports Sci Med. 2016;15:585591.

  • 11.

    Cormack SJ, Smith RL, Mooney MM, Young WB, O’Brien BJ. Accelerometer load as a measure of activity profile in different standards of netball match play. Int J Sports Physiol Perf. 2014;9(2):283291. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2012-0216

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Chandler TP, Pinder JS, Curran DJ, Gabbett JT. Physical demands of training and competition in collegiate netball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(10):27322737. PubMed ID: 24983848 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000486

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Young CM, Gastin PB, Sanders N, Mackey L, Dwyer DB. Player load in elite netball: match, training and positional comparisons. Int J Sports Physiol Perf. 2016;11(8):10741079. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0156

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Bailey JA, Gastin PB, Mackey L, Dwyer DB. The player load associated with typical activities in elite netball. Int J Sports Physiol Perf. 2017;12(9):12181223. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0378

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Fox A, Spittle M, Otago L, Saunders N. Activity profiles of the Australian female netball team players during international competition: implications for training practice. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(14):15881595. doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.792943

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Fox A, Spittle M, Otago L, Saunders N. Offensive agility techniques performed during international netball competition. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2014;9(3):543552. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.9.3.543

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Saw AE, Main LC, Gastin PB. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(5):281291. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-094758

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Jones MR, Kilduff LP, West DJ, Crewther BT, Cook CJ. Quantifying positional and temporal movement patterns in professional rugby union using global positioning system. Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15(6):488496. doi:10.1080/17461391.2015.1010106

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Luteberget LS, Spencer M. High-intensity events in international women’s team handball matches. Int J Sports Physiol Perf. 2016;12(1):5661. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0641

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Ashton RE, Twist C. Number of directional changes alters the physiological, perceptual, and neuromuscular responses of netball players during intermittent shuttle running. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(10):27312737. PubMed ID: 26402473 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000933

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Borresen J, Lambert MI. The quantification of training load, the training response and the effect on performance. Sports Med. 2009;39(9):779795. PubMed ID: 19691366 doi:10.2165/11317780-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Foster C, Florhaug JA, Franklin J, et al. A new approach to monitoring exercise training. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(1):109. PubMed ID: 11708692

  • 23.

    Hopkins W. A scale of magnitudes for effect statistics. A new view of statistics. 2005. https://www.sportsci.org/resource/stats/effectmag.html. Accessed April 29, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Brughelli M, Cronin J, Levin G, Chaouachi A. Understanding change of direction ability in sport. Sports Med. 2008;38(12):10451063. PubMed ID: 19026020 doi:10.2165/00007256-200838120-00007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Harper DJ, Kiely J. Damaging nature of decelerations: do we adequately prepare players? BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2018;4(1):e000379. doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2018-000379

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Moran LR, Hegedus EJ, Bleakley CM, Taylor JB. Jump load: capturing the next great injury analytic. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53(1):89. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2018-099103

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Byrne C, Twist C, Eston R. Neuromuscular function after exercise-induced muscle damage: theoretical and applied implications. Sports Med. 2004;34(1):4969. PubMed ID: 14715039 doi:10.2165/00007256-200434010-00005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Spencer M, Bishop D, Dawson B, Goodman C. Physiological and metabolic responses of repeated-sprint activities. Sports Med. 2005;35(12):10251044. PubMed ID: 16336007 doi:10.2165/00007256-200535120-00003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    O’Donoghue P, Mayes A, Edwards KM, Garland J. Performance norms for British national super league netball. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2008;3(4):501511. doi:10.1260/174795408787186486

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 202 202 20
Full Text Views 34 34 7
PDF Downloads 24 24 6