Single and Combined Effect of Acute Sleep Restriction and Mental Fatigue on Basketball Free-Throw Performance

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $112.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $149.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $213.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $284.00

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the single and combined effects of sleep restriction (SR) and mental fatigue (MF) on free-throw (FT) performance among adult male basketball players. Methods: A total of 19 amateur male basketball players performed, in a randomized, counterbalanced, and crossover order, 2 identical experimental sessions separated by an interval of 1 week. The difference between the 2 sessions was in the quantity of sleep the night before the sessions, as follows: in one case, the participants followed their habitual sleep–wake routines; in the other session, they were forced to sleep not more than 5 hours. During the experimental sessions, the participants performed 60 basketball FTs on 2 occasions, separated by watching a basketball tactical video for 30 minutes designed to induce MF. As such, the FT test was completed in 4 different conditions: control, MF, SR, and SR and MF combined. Results: The participants registered a significantly lower total sleep time in acute SR (P < .001). The subjective rating of MF was lower in the control than in MF, SR, and SR and MF combined (P < .001). There were no differences between conditions for the subjective ratings of motivation. FT accuracy was higher in the control than in MF, SR, and SR and MF combined (P = .010), while no differences were observed between the 3 experimental conditions (all P > .05). Conclusion: The results indicate that a combined effect of MF and SR induces a small reduction in basketball FT performance, similar to MF or SR alone.

Filipas, Ferioli, and La Torre are with the Dept of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. Banfi, La Torre, and Vitale are with the IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy. Banfi is also with the Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Vitale (jacopo.vitale@grupposandonato.it) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Ferioli D, Schelling X, Bosio A, La Torre A, Rucco D, Rampinini E. Match activities in basketball games: comparison between different competitive levels. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34(1):172182. PubMed ID: 30741861 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003039

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    McGee K. Coaching Basketball Technical and Tactical Skills. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2006.

  • 3.

    Ferioli D, Rucco D, Rampinini E, La Torre A, Manfredi MM, Conte D. Combined effect of number of players and dribbling on game-based-drill demands in basketball. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2020;15(8):825832. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2019-0645

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Ibánez SJ, Sampaio J, Feu S, Lorenzo A, Gómez MA, Ortega E. Basketball game related statistics that discriminate between team’s season-long success. Eur J Sport Sci. 2008;8(6):369372.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Kozar B, Vaughn RE, Whitfield KE, Lord RH, Dye B. Importance of free-throws at various stages of basketball games. Percept Mot Skills. 1994;78(1):243248. doi:10.2466/pms.1994.78.1.243

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Halson SL. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Med. 2014;44(suppl 1):1323. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0147-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Vitale JA, La Torre A, Banfi G. If RAR’s acrophase is influenced by the sport discipline, how actigraphy-based sleep parameters vary in triathlon, volleyball and soccer athletes? Chronobiol Int. 2019;36(6):735738. PubMed ID: 30950295 doi:10.1080/07420528.2019.1594246

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Vitale JA, Banfi G, Galbiati A, Ferini Strambi L, La Torre A. Effect of a night game on actigraphy-based sleep quality and perceived recovery in top-level volleyball athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14(2):265269. PubMed ID: 30040006 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2018-0194

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Taylor L, Chrismas BC, Dascombe B, Chamari K, Fowler PM. Sleep medication and athletic performance-the evidence for practitioners and future research directions. Front Physiol. 2016;7:83. PubMed ID: 27014084

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Chennaoui M, Arnal PJ, Sauvet F, Léger D. Sleep and exercise: a reciprocal issue? Sleep Med Rev. 2015;20:5972. PubMed ID: 25127157 doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.06.008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Thun E, Bjorvatn B, Flo E, Harris A, Pallesen S. Sleep, circadian rhythms, and athletic performance. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;23:19. PubMed ID: 25645125 doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.11.003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Fox JL, Scanlan AT, Stanton R, Sargent C. Insufficient sleep in young athletes? causes, consequences, and potential treatments. Sports Med. 2020;50(3):461470. PubMed ID: 31679145 doi:10.1007/s40279-019-01220-8

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Skein M, Duffield R, Edge J, Short MJ, Mündel T. Intermittent-sprint performance and muscle glycogen after 30 h of sleep deprivation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):13011311. PubMed ID: 21200339 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31820abc5a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Jones JJ, Kirschen GW, Kancharla S, Hale L. Association between late-night tweeting and next-day game performance among professional basketball players. Sleep Health. 2019;5(1):6871. PubMed ID: 30670169 doi:10.1016/j.sleh.2018.09.005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Staunton C, Gordon B, Custovic E, Stanger J, Kingsley M. Sleep patterns and match performance in elite Australian basketball athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20(8):786789. PubMed ID: 28169152 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.016

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Mah CD, Mah KE, Kezirian EJ, Dement WC. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players. Sleep. 2011;34(7):943950. PubMed ID: 21731144 doi:10.5665/SLEEP.1132

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Boksem MA, Tops M. Mental fatigue: costs and benefits. Brain Res Rev. 2008;59(1):125139. PubMed ID: 18652844 doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.07.001

  • 18.

    van der Linden D, Frese M, Meijman TF. Mental fatigue and the control of cognitive processes: effects on perseveration and planning. Acta Psychol. 2003;113(1):4565. doi:10.1016/S0001-6918(02)00150-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Lorist MM, Boksem MA, Ridderinkhof KR. Impaired cognitive control and reduced cingulate activity during mental fatigue. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2005;24(2):199205. PubMed ID: 15993758 doi:10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.01.018

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Van Cutsem J, Marcora S, De Pauw K, Bailey S, Meeusen R, Roelands B. The effects of mental fatigue on physical performance: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2017;47(8):15691588. PubMed ID: 28044281 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0672-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Moreira A, Aoki MS, Franchini E, da Silva Machado DG, Paludo AC, Okano AH. Mental fatigue impairs technical performance and alters neuroendocrine and autonomic responses in elite young basketball players. Physiol Behav. 2018;196:112118. PubMed ID: 30172721 doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.08.015

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Gómez , Avugos S, Oñoro , Lorenzo A, Bar-Eli M. Shaq is not alone: free-throws in the final moments of a basketball game. J Hum Kinet. 2018;62(1):135144. doi:10.1515/hukin-2017-0165

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Sargent C, Lastella M, Halson SL, Roach GD. The validity of activity monitors for measuring sleep in elite athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(10):848853. PubMed ID: 26794719 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Smith MR, Thompson C, Marcora SM, Skorski S, Meyer T, Coutts AJ. Mental fatigue and soccer: current knowledge and future directions. Sports Med. 2018;48(7):15251532. PubMed ID: 29623604 doi:10.1007/s40279-018-0908-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Khlifa R, Aouadi R, Shephard R, Chelly MS, Hermassi S, Gabbett TJ. Effects of a shoot training programme with a reduced hoop diameter rim on free-throw performance and kinematics in young basketball players. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(5):497504. PubMed ID: 23113531 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.736634

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Bakeman R. Recommended effect size statistics for repeated measures designs. Behav Res Methods. 2005;37(3):379384. PubMed ID: 16405133 doi:10.3758/BF03192707

  • 27.

    Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):313. PubMed ID: 19092709 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818cb278

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Le Mansec Y, Pageaux B, Nordez A, Dorel S, Jubeau M. Mental fatigue alters the speed and the accuracy of the ball in table tennis. J Sports Sci. 2018;36(23):27512759. PubMed ID: 29260619 doi:10.1080/02640414.2017.1418647

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Boksem MA, Meijman TF, Lorist MM. Effects of mental fatigue on attention: an ERP study. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2005;25(1):107116. PubMed ID: 15913965 doi:10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.04.011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Effect of 1 week of sleep restriction on testosterone levels in young healthy men. JAMA. 2011;305(21):21732174. PubMed ID: 21632481 doi:10.1001/jama.2011.710

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Jardí F, Laurent MR, Kim N, et al. Testosterone boosts physical activity in male mice via dopaminergic pathways. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):957. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-19104-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Filipas L, Mottola F, Tagliabue G, La Torre A. The effect of mentally demanding cognitive tasks on rowing performance in young athletes. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2018;39:5262. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.08.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Massar SAA, Lim J, Sasmita K, Chee MWL. Sleep deprivation increases the costs of attentional effort: Performance, preference and pupil size. Neuropsychologia. 2019;123:169177. PubMed ID: 29601889 doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.03.032

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Fullagar HH, Skorski S, Duffield R, Hammes D, Coutts AJ, Meyer T. Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Sports Med. 2015;45(2):161186. PubMed ID: 25315456 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0260-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 134 134 134
Full Text Views 5 5 5
PDF Downloads 5 5 5