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Purpose: To evaluate if the internal training load (ITL; Edwards heart rate [HR]-based and session-rating of perceived exertion [RPE] methods) is affected by the presession well-being perception, age, and position in elite (ie, Serie A2) female volleyball training. Methods: Twelve female elite volleyball players (age: 22  y, height: 1.80 [0.06] m, body mass: 74.1 [4.3] kg) were monitored using an HR monitor during 32 team training sessions (duration: 1:36:12 [0:22:24], in h:min:s). Linear mixed-effects models were applied to evaluate if well-being perception (ie, perceived sleep quality/disorders, stress level, fatigue, and delayed-onset muscle soreness) may affect ITL depending on age and tactical position. Results: Presession perceived fatigue influenced ITL according to the session-RPE (P = .032) but not according to the Edwards method. Age was inversely correlated to the Edwards method (P < .001) and directly correlated to the session-RPE (P = .027). Finally, central blockers experienced a higher training load than hitters (P < .001) and liberos (P < .001) for the Edwards method, as well as higher than hitters (P < .001), liberos (P = .003), and setters (P = .008) for session-RPE. Conclusions: Findings indicated that female volleyball players’ perceived ITL is influenced by presession well-being status, age, and position. Therefore, coaches can benefit from this information to specifically predict players’ ITL in relation to their individual characteristics.
The authors are with the Neuromuscular Function Research Group, School of Exercise & Sport Sciences (SUISM), Dept of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.