Internal Load of Male Varsity Ice Hockey Players During Training and Games Throughout an Entire Season

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $114.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $152.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $217.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $289.00

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the internal load of male varsity ice hockey players, using both sessional rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and the heart rate–derived physiological measure of training impulse (TRIMP), during training sessions and competitions throughout an entire season. Methods: Twenty-seven male varsity ice hockey players (22.1 [1.1] y, 85.9 [5.4] kg, 181.3 [5.1] cm) were included in this longitudinal prospective cohort study. Results: The internal load was significantly higher (P < .001) for games (sRPE: 403 [184] arbitrary units [AU], TRIMP: 98 [59] AU) compared with training sessions (sRPE: 281 [130] AU, TRIMP: 71 [35] AU). The regular season had the highest internal load compared with the preseason and postseason. There was evidence of microcycle periodization with training sessions several days prior to game days having the highest internal load (both sRPE and TRIMP) and tapering down as the subsequent training sessions approached game day. For positional comparisons, the goalies had higher sRPE (346 [151] AU, P < .001) and TRIMP (99 [64] AU, P < .001) compared with defense (sRPE: 295 [130] AU, TRIMP: 65 [29] AU) and forwards (sRPE: 264 [123] AU, TRIMP: 70 [30] AU) for training sessions, but no significant differences were present for competitions. Finally, there was an overall moderate and statistically significant relationship between the sRPE and TRIMP internal load measures (r = .434, P < .001). Conclusions: Internal load was greater during competitions versus training sessions in male varsity ice hockey players, and the microcycle assessment demonstrated that training sessions were tailored to game day. Mesocycle assessment revealed the highest internal loads during the regular season due to dense game scheduling and a short season.

The authors are with the University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Bigg (jbigg@uoguelph.ca) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Lignell E, Fransson D, Krustrup P, Mohr M. Analysis of high-intensity skating in top-class ice hockey match-play in relation to training status and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(5):13031310.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Impellizzeri FM, Marcora SM, Coutts AJ. Internal and external training load: 15 years on. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14:270273.

  • 3.

    Halson SL. Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes. Sports Med. 2014;44(2):139147.

  • 4.

    Borg G, Borg E. A new generation of scaling methods: level- anchored ratio scaling. Psychol Res. 2001;28:1545.

  • 5.

    Foster C. Monitoring training in athletes with reference to over-training syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30:11641168.

  • 6.

    Oliveira R, Brito JP, Loureiro N, Padinha V, Ferreira B, Mendes B. Does the distribution of the weekly training load account for the match results of elite professional soccer players? Physiol Behav. 2020;1:113118.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Gonçalves LG, Kalva-Filho CA, Nakamura FY, et al. Effects of match-related contextual factors on weekly load responses in professional Brazilian soccer players. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(14):5163.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Gonçalves L, Clemente FM, Silva B, et al. Variations of season workload and well-being status among professional roller-hockey players: full season analysis. Physiol Behav. 2020;1(215):112785.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Salazar H, Svilar L, Aldalur-Soto A, Castellano J. Differences in weekly load distribution over two Euroleague seasons with a different head coach. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(8):2812.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Clemente FM, Mendes B, Palao JM, et al. Seasonal player wellness and its longitudinal association with internal training load: study in elite volleyball. J Sport Med Phys Fit. 2019;59(3):345351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Clemente FM, Oliveira H, Vaz T, Carriço S, Calvete F, Mendes B. Variations of perceived load and well-being between normal and congested weeks in elite case study handball team. Res Sports Med. 2019;27(3):412423.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Conte D, Kolb N, Scanlan AT, Santolamazza F. Monitoring training load and well-being during the in-season phase in NCAA Division I men’s basketball. Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 2018;13(8):10671074.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Debien PB, Mancini M, Coimbra DR, de Freitas DG, Miranda R, Bara Filho MG. Monitoring training load, recovery, and performance of Brazilian professional volleyball players during a season. Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 2018;13(9):11821189.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Clarke N, Farthing JP, Norris SR, Arnold BE, Lanovaz JL. Quantification of training load in Canadian football: application of session-RPE in collision-based team sports. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(8):21982205.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Pustina AA, Sato K, Liu C, et al. Establishing a duration standard for the calculation of session rating of perceived exertion in NCAA division I men’s soccer. J Trainology. 2017;6(1):2630.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Banister EW, Calvert TW. Planning for future performance: implications for long term training. Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1980;5:170176

  • 17.

    Edwards S. High performance training and racing. In: Edwards S, ed. The Heart Rate Monitor Book. Sacramento, CA: Feet Fleet Press. 1993;113123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Stagno KM, Thatcher R, van Someren KA. A modified TRIMP to quantify the in-season training load of team sport players. J Sports Sci. 2007;25:629634.

  • 19.

    Manzi V, Iellamo F, Impellizzeri F, D’ottavio S, Castagna C. Relation between individualized training impulses and performance in distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:20902096.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Grünbichler J, Federolf P, Gatterer H. Workload efficiency as a new tool to describe external and internal competitive match load of a professional soccer team: a descriptive study on the relationship between pre-game training loads and relative match load. Eur J Sport Sci. 2020;20(8):10341041.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Fox JL, Stanton R, Scanlan AT. A comparison of training and competition demands in semiprofessional male basketball players. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2018a;89(1):103111.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Wilke CF, Ramos GP, Pacheco DA, et al. Metabolic demand and internal training load in technical-tactical training sessions of professional futsal players. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(8):23302340.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Duarte TS, Alves DL, Coimbra DR, Miloski B, Marins JC, Bara Filho MG. Technical and tactical training load in professional volleyball players. Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 2019;14(10):13381343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Campos-Vazquez MA, Toscano-Bendala FJ, Mora-Ferrera JC, Suarez-Arrones LJ. Relationship between internal load indicators and changes on intermittent performance after the preseason in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(6):14771485.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Muggeridge DJ, Hickson K, Davies AV, et al. Measurement of heart rate using the Polar OH1 and Fitbit Charge 3 wearable devices in healthy adults during light, moderate, vigorous, and sprint-based exercise: validation study. JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 2021;9(3):e25313.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Hettiarachchi IT, Hanoun S, Nahavandi D, Nahavandi S. Validation of Polar OH1 optical heart rate sensor for moderate and high intensity physical activities. PLoS One. 2019;14(5):e0217288.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Douglas A, Rotondi MA, Baker J, Jamnik VK, Macpherson AK. On-ice physical demands of world-class women’s ice hockey: from training to competition. Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 2019;14(9):12271232.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Rago V, Vigh-Larsen JF, Deylami K, Muschinsky A, Mohr M. Use of rating of perceived exertion-based training load in elite ice hockey training and match-play [published online ahead of print December 22, 2020]. J Strength Cond Res. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003915

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Zurutuza U, Castellano J, Echeazarra I, Casamichana D. Absolute and relative training load and its relation to fatigue in football. Front Psychol. 2017;8:878.

  • 30.

    Jackson J, Gervais P. Movement characteristics and heart rate profiles displayed by female university ice hockey players. Int J Kinesiol Sports Sci. 2016;4(1):4354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Andrade DM, Fernandes G, Miranda R, Coimbra DR, Bara Filho MG. Training load and recovery in volleyball during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;1:17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Fessi MS, Nouira S, Dellal A, Owen A, Elloumi M, Moalla W. Changes of the psychophysical state and feeling of wellness of professional soccer players during pre-season and in-season periods. Res Sport Med. 2016;24(4):375386.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 52 52 52
Full Text Views 5 5 5
PDF Downloads 5 5 5