Power Road-Derived Physical Performance Parameters in Junior, Under-23, and Professional Road Cycling Climbers

Click name to view affiliation

Gabriele Gallo Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Multifunctional Center of Motor Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

Search for other papers by Gabriele Gallo in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Manuel Mateo-March Spanish Cycling Federation, Madrid, Spain

Search for other papers by Manuel Mateo-March in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Peter Leo Department of Sports Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

Search for other papers by Peter Leo in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Antonio Campos-Donaire Eolo Kometa Cycling Team, Madrid, Spain

Search for other papers by Antonio Campos-Donaire in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Alexis Gandia-Soriano Biophysics and Medical Physics Group (GIFIME), Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain

Search for other papers by Alexis Gandia-Soriano in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Andrea Giorgi Androni Giocattoli-Sidermec Professional Cycling Team, Siena, Italy
Complex Operational Unit for Functional Recovery and Reeducation, Azienda USL Toscana Sud-Est, Arezzo, Italy

Search for other papers by Andrea Giorgi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Emanuela Faelli Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Multifunctional Center of Motor Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

Search for other papers by Emanuela Faelli in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Piero Ruggeri Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Human Physiology, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Multifunctional Center of Motor Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

Search for other papers by Piero Ruggeri in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Roberto Codella Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Department of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, IRCCS MultiMedica, Milan, Italy

Search for other papers by Roberto Codella in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Iñigo Mujika Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Spain
Exercise Science Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Finis Terrae University, Santiago, Chile

Search for other papers by Iñigo Mujika in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Luca Filipas Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Department of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, IRCCS MultiMedica, Milan, Italy

Search for other papers by Luca Filipas in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
Restricted access

Purpose: To investigate the relationship of field-derived power and physical performance parameters with competition success in road cycling climbing specialists of age-related categories and to explore cross-sectional differences between high-ranked (HIGHR) climbing specialists of each category. Methods: Fifty-three male climbers participated in this study (junior [JUN], n = 15; under 23 [U23], n = 21; professional [PRO], n = 17). Training and racing data collected during the 2016–19 competitive seasons were retrospectively analyzed for record power outputs (RPOs) and RPOs after prior accumulated work. Results: In JUN, body mass, absolute RPOs, and relative RPOs were higher in HIGHR compared with low ranked (d = 0.97–2.20, large; P = .097–.001); in U23 and PRO, the percentage decrease in RPOs after 20, 30, 40, and 50 kJ·kg−1 was less in HIGHR compared with low ranked (d = 0.77–1.74, moderate–large; P = .096–.004). JUN HIGHR presented lower absolute and relative RPO-20 min (ηp2=.34.38, large; P = .099–.001) and higher percentage decrease in RPOs after prior accumulated work compared with U23 and PRO HIGHR (ηp2=.28.68, large; P = .060–.001); percentage decrease in RPOs after prior accumulated work was the only parameter differentiating U23 and PRO HIGHR, with PRO declining less in relative RPO-1 min, RPO-5 min, and RPO-20 min after 20 to 50 kJ·kg−1 (ηp2=.28.68, large; P = .090–.001). Conclusions: Superior absolute and relative RPOs characterize HIGHR JUN climbing specialists. Superior fatigue resistance differentiates HIGHR U23 and PRO climbers compared with low ranked, as well as PRO versus U23 climbers.

Filipas (luca.filipas@unimi.it) is corresponding author.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • 1.

    Leo P, Spragg J, Mujika I, et al. Power profiling, workload characteristics, and race performance of U23 and professional cyclists during the multistage race Tour of the Alps. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2021;16(8):10891095. PubMed ID: 33789246 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2020-0381

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Lucia A, Hoyos J, Pérez M, Santalla A, Earnest CP, Chicharro JL. Which laboratory variable is related with time trial performance time in the Tour de France? Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(5):636640. PubMed ID: 15388555 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2003.008490

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Menaspà P, Rampinini E, Bosio A, Carlomagno D, Riggio M, Sassi A. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of junior cyclists of different specialties and performance levels. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 2012;22(3):392398. PubMed ID: 20807389 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01168.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Gallo G, Filipas L, Tornaghi M, et al. Thresholds power profiles and performance in youth road cycling. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2021;16(7):10491051. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2020-0579

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Leo P, Spragg J, Simon D, Lawley JS, Mujika I. Training characteristics and power profile of professional U23 cyclists throughout a competitive season. Sports. 2020;8(12):167. PubMed ID: 33348618 doi:10.3390/sports8120167

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Pinot J, Grappe F. The record power profile to assess performance in elite cyclists. Int J Sports Med. 2011;32(11):839844. PubMed ID: 22052032 doi:10.1055/s-0031-1279773

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    van Erp T, Sanders D, Lamberts RP. Maintaining power output with accumulating levels of work done is a key determinant for success in professional cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2021;53(9):19031910. PubMed ID: 33731651 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002656

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Quod MJ, Martin DT, Martin JC, Laursen PB. The power profile predicts road cycling MMP. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(6):397401. PubMed ID: 20301046 doi:10.1055/s-0030-1247528

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Pinot J, Grappe F. A six-year monitoring case study of a top-10 cycling grand tour finisher. J Sports Sci. 2015;33(9):907914. PubMed ID: 25357188 doi:10.1080/02640414.2014.969296

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Svendsen IS, Tønnesen E, Tjelta LI, Ørn S. Training, performance, and physiological predictors of a successful elite senior career in junior competitive road cyclists. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(10):12871292. PubMed ID: 29745739 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2017-0824

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Mostaert M, Vansteenkiste P, Pion J, Deconinck FJA, Lenoir M. The importance of performance in youth competitions as an indicator of future success in cycling. Eur J Sport Sci2021;22(4):481490. PubMed ID: 33446072 doi:10.1080/17461391.2021.1877359

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Schumacher YO, Mroz R, Mueller P, Schmid A, Ruecker G. Success in elite cycling: a prospective and retrospective analysis of race results. J Sports Sci. 2006;24(11):11491156. PubMed ID: 17175613 doi:10.1080/02640410500457299

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Gallo G, Leo P, Mateo-March M, et al. Cross-sectional differences in race demands between junior, under 23, and professional road cyclists. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2022;17(3):450457. PubMed ID: 34996033 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2021-0256

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Gallo G, Mostaert M, Faelli E, et al. Do race results in youth competitions predict future success as a road cyclist? A retrospective study in the Italian cycling federation. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2022;17(4):621626. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2021-0297

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Maier T, Schmid L, Müller B, Steiner T, Wehrlin JP. Accuracy of cycling power meters against a mathematical model of treadmill cycling. Int J Sports Med. 2017;38(6):456461. PubMed ID: 28482367 doi:10.1055/s-0043-102945

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Du Bois D, Du Bois EF. A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. 1916. Nutrition. 1989;5(5):303311. PubMed ID: 2520314

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Wassertheil S, Cohen J. Reviewed work: Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences by Jacob Cohen. Biometrics1970;26(3):588. doi:10.2307/2529115

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Bakeman R. Recommended effect size statistics for repeated measures designs. Behav Res Methods. 2005;37(3):379384. doi:10.3758/BF03192707

  • 19.

    Joyner MJ, Coyle EF. Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. J Physiol. 2008;586(1):3544. PubMed ID: 17901124 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.143834

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Antón MM, Izquierdo M, Ibáñez J, Asiain X, Mendiguchía J, Gorostiaga EM. Flat and uphill climb time trial performance prediction in elite amateur cyclists. Int J Sports Med. 2007;43(2):161167. PubMed ID: 34265861 doi:10.1055/s-2006-924356

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Leo P, Spragg J, Simon D, Lawley J, Mujika I. Climbing performance in U23 and professional cyclists during a multi-stage race. Int J Sports Med. 2022;43(2):161167. doi:10.1055/a-1524-2656

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Kordi M, Parker Simpson L, Thomas K, et al. The relationship between neuromuscular function and the W′ in elite cyclists. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2021;16(11):16561662. PubMed ID: 33873151 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2020-0861

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Abbiss CR, Laursen PB. Models to explain fatigue during prolonged endurance cycling. Sports Med. 2005;35(10):865898. PubMed ID: 16180946 doi:10.2165/00007256-200535100-00004

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Passfield L, Doust JH. Changes in cycling efficiency and performance after endurance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(11):19351941. PubMed ID: 11079525 doi:10.1097/00005768-200011000-00018

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Vikmoen O, Rønnestad BR, Ellefsen S, Raastad T. Heavy strength training improves running and cycling performance following prolonged submaximal work in well-trained female athletes. Physiol Rep. 2017;5(5):e13149. PubMed ID: 28292885 doi:10.14814/phy2.13149

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Filipas L, Martin K, Northey JM, La Torre A, Keegan R, Rattray B. A 4-week endurance training program improves tolerance to mental exertion in untrained individuals. J Sci Med Sport. 2020;23(12):12151219. PubMed ID: 32456979 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2020.04.020

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Filipas L, Gallo G, Pollastri L, Torre AL. Mental fatigue impairs time trial performance in sub-elite under 23 cyclists. PLoS One. 2019;14(6):e0218405. PubMed ID: 31206523 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0218405

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Jeukendrup AE. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(suppl 1):S91S99. PubMed ID: 21916794 doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.610348

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Rønnestad BR, Hansen EA, Raastad T. Strength training improves 5-min all-out performance following 185 min of cycling. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 2011;21(2):250259. PubMed ID: 19903319 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01035.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Burnley M, Jones AM. Power–duration relationship: physiology, fatigue, and the limits of human performance. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018;18(1):112. PubMed ID: 27806677 doi:10.1080/17461391.2016.1249524

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 3366 779 60
Full Text Views 273 124 3
PDF Downloads 286 75 4