Development and Validation of Single Items for Fatigue and Recovery in Dancers

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Annie C. Jeffries Faculty of Health, School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
College of Engineering, Science and Environment, School of Environmental & Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

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Andrew R. Novak Faculty of Health, School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Aaron J. Coutts Faculty of Health, School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Alan McCall Faculty of Health, School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Arsenal Performance and Research Team, Arsenal Football Club, London, United Kingdom

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Shaun J. McLaren Newcastle Falcons Rugby Club, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

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Franco M. Impellizzeri Faculty of Health, School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

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Purpose: To examine the construct validity and reliability of 2 single items for fatigue and recovery in dancers. The construct validity was assessed using reference instruments: the fatigue items of the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and the Short Recovery and Stress Scale (SRSS). A secondary aim was to explore the respondent interpretation of these 2 items using a concept identification approach. Methods: Two hundred forty-three (N = 243) dancers completed single-item fatigue and recovery (unipolar and bipolar), BRUMS, and SRSS once for construct validity. For reliability,  49 dancers completed the questionnaires twice, 1 week apart. Using a concept identification approach, 49 dancers were also asked comprehension and interpretation of fatigue and recovery. Results: The fatigue item correlated with SRSS stress items (rs = .37–.51) and BRUMs fatigue items (rs = .63–.66). The recovery item was only partially confirmed in terms of construct validity, when using the SRSS recovery items as reference (rs = .39–.43). Reliability was confirmed for the single items of fatigue (κ = .77–.78) and recovery (κ = .71–.78). Main responses for the concept of fatigue were tiredness (34.7%), muscle soreness (17.3%), and energy (13.0%). Main responses for the concept of recovery were muscle soreness (43.0%), tiredness (27.9%), and fatigue (24.0%). Conclusion: We provide preliminary confirmation of the validity and reliability of the single item fatigue in dancers. The recovery item was only partially confirmed in terms of construct validity, when using the SRSS recovery items as reference, but did display acceptable reliability and agreement. Further research is warranted further exploring other measurement properties.

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