Effects of a 6-Week Repeated-Sprint Training With Voluntary Hypoventilation at Low and High Lung Volume on Repeated-Sprint Ability in Female Soccer Players

Click name to view affiliation

Mounir Ait Ali Braham Département des Sciences de l’Activité Physique Trois-Rivières, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivieres, QC, Canada

Search for other papers by Mounir Ait Ali Braham in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0009-0000-8573-7500
,
Youva Ouchen Département STAPS, UFR SMBH, Université Sorbonne Paris Nord, Bobigny, France

Search for other papers by Youva Ouchen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Xavier Woorons EA 7369—URePSSS—Unité de Recherche Pluridisciplinaire Sport Santé Société, Université Lille, Université Artois, Université Littoral Côte d’Opale, Lille, France
ARPEH, Association for Research and Promotion of Hypoventilation Training, Lille, France

Search for other papers by Xavier Woorons in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8150-9153 *
Restricted access

Purpose: To investigate the effects of repeated-sprint training with voluntary hypoventilation at low (RSH-VHL) and high (RS-VHH) lung volume on repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in female athletes. Methods: Over a 6-week period, 24 female soccer players completed 12 sessions of repeated 30-m running sprints with end-expiratory breath holding (RSH-VHL, n = 8), end-inspiratory breath holding (RS-VHH, n = 8), or unrestricted breathing (RS-URB, n = 8). Before and after training, a running RSA test consisting of performing 30-m all-out sprints until exhaustion was implemented. Results: From before to after training, the number of sprints completed during the RSA test was increased in both RSH-VHL (19.3 [0.9] vs 22.6 [0.9]; P < .01) and RS-VHH (19.3 [1.5] vs 20.5 [1.7]; P < .01) but not in RS-URB (19.4 [1.3] vs 19.5 [1.7]; P = .67). The mean velocity and the percentage decrement score calculated over sprints 1 to 17 were, respectively, higher (82.2% [1.8%] vs 84.6% [2.1%] of maximal velocity) and lower (23.7% [3.1%] vs 19.4% [3.2%]) in RSH-VHL (P < .01), whereas they remained unchanged in RS-VHH and RS-URB. The mean arterial oxygen saturation recorded during training at the end of the sprints was lower in RSH-VHL (92.1% [0.4%]) than in RS-VHH (97.3% [0.1%]) and RS-URB (97.8% [0.1%]). Conclusions: This study shows that female athletes can benefit from the RSH-VHL intervention to improve RSA. The performance gains may have been limited by the short sprinting distance with end-expiratory breath holding, which provoked only moderate hypoxemia. The increase in the number of sprints in RS-VHH seems to show that factors other than hypoxia may have played a role in RSA improvement.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • 1.

    Bangsbo J, Michalsik L. Assessment of the physiological capacity of elite soccer players. Science and football. Sci Football. 2002;4:5362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Dellal A. A Season of Strength and Conditioning in Soccer. 2nd ed. De Boeck Superieur; 2017.

  • 3.

    Bishop D, Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A. Repeated-sprint ability—part II. Sports Med. 2011;41(9):741756. doi:

  • 4.

    Brocherie F, Girard O, Faiss R, Millet GP. Effects of repeated-sprint training in hypoxia on sea-level performance: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2017;47(8):16511660. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Millet GP, Girard O, Beard A, Brocherie F. Repeated sprint training in hypoxia—an innovative method. Dtsch Z Sportmed. 2019;2019(5):115122. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Kume D, Akahoshi S, Yamagata T, Wakimoto T, Nagao N. Does voluntary hypoventilation during exercise impact EMG activity? Springerplus. 2016;5(1):149. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Toubekis AG, Beidaris N, Botonis PG, Koskolou M. Severe hypoxemia induced by prolonged expiration and reduced frequency breathing during submaximal swimming. J Sports Sci. 2017;35(11):10251033. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Woorons X, Mollard P, Pichon A, Duvallet A, Richalet JP, Lamberto C. Prolonged expiration down to residual volume leads to severe arterial hypoxemia in athletes during submaximal exercise. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;158(1):7582. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Woorons X, Billaut F, Lamberto C. Running exercise with end-expiratory breath holding up to the breaking point induces large and early fall in muscle oxygenation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2021;121(12):35153525. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Trincat L, Woorons X, Millet GP. Repeated-sprint training in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation in swimming. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(3):329335. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Fornasier-Santos C, Millet GP, Woorons X. Repeated-sprint training in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation improves running repeated-sprint ability in rugby players. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018;18(4):504512. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Woorons X, Millet GP, Mucci P. Physiological adaptations to repeated sprint training in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2019;119(9):19591970. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Brocherie F, Cantamessi G, Millet GP, Woorons X. Effects of repeated-sprint training in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation on performance during ice hockey off-season. Int J Sports Sci Coaching. 2022;18(2):531. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Lapointe J, Paradis-Deschênes P, Woorons X, Lemaître F, Billaut F. Impact of hypoventilation training on muscle oxygenation, myoelectrical changes, systemic [K+], and repeated-sprint ability in basketball players. Front Sports Act Living. 2020;2:29. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Woorons X, Billaut F, Vandewalle H. Transferable benefits of cycle hypoventilation training for run-based performance in team-sport athletes. Int J Sport Physiol Perf. 2020;27:583. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Charkoudian N, Joyner MJ. Physiologic considerations for exercise performance in women. Clin Chest Med. 2004; 25(2):247255. doi:

  • 17.

    Isacco L, Duché P, Boisseau N. Influence of hormonal status on substrate utilization at rest and during exercise in the female population. Sports Med. 2012; 42(4):327342. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Shephard RJ. Exercise and training in women, Part I: influence of gender on exercise and training responses. Can J Appl Physiol. 2000;25(1):1934. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Dicker SG, Lofthus GK, Thornton NW, Brooks GA. Respiratory and heart rate responses to tethered controlled frequency breathing swimming. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980; 12(1):2023. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Holmer I, Gullstrand L. Physiological responses to swimming with controlled frequency of breathing. Scand J Sports Sci. 1980;2:16.

  • 21.

    Woorons X, Mucci P, Aucouturier J, Anthierens A, Millet GP. Acute effects of repeated cycling sprints in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017; 117(12):24332443. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Glaister M, Howatson G, Pattison JR, McInnes G. The reliability and validity of fatigue measures during multiple-sprint work: an issue revisited. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(5):15971601. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Carmichael MA, Thomson RL, Moran LJ, Wycherley TP. The impact of menstrual cycle phase on athletes’ performance: a narrative review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(4):1667. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Graja A, Kacem M, Hammouda O, et al. Physical, biochemical, and neuromuscular responses to repeated sprint exercise in eumenorrheic female handball players: effect of menstrual cycle phases. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;36(8):22682276. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D. Repeated-sprint ability – part I: factors contributing to fatigue. Sports Med. 2011;41(8):673694. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Christiansen D, Eibye KH, Rasmussen V, et al. Cycling with blood flow restriction improves performance and muscle K+ regulation and alters the effect of anti-oxidant infusion in humans. J Physiol. 2019; 597(9):24212444. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Woorons X, Mucci P, Richalet JP, Pichon A. Hypoventilation training at supramaximal intensity improves swimming performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48(6):11191128. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Woorons X. Hypoventilation Training, Push Your Limits!. Arpeh; 2014.164p. ISBN: 978-2-9546040-1-5.

  • 29.

    Sharp RL, Williams DJ, Bevan L. Effects of controlled frequency breathing during exercise on blood gases and acid-base balance. Int J Sports Med. 1991;12(1):6265. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1524 1524 212
Full Text Views 70 70 0
PDF Downloads 96 96 2