Integrating the Internal and External Training Loads in Soccer

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Ibrahim Akubat
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Steve Barrett
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Grant Abt
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This study aimed to assess the relationships of fitness in soccer players with a novel integration of internal and external training load (TL).


Ten amateur soccer players performed a lactate threshold (LT) test followed by a soccer simulation (Ball-Sport Endurance and Sprint Test [BEAST90mod]).


The results from the LT test were used to determine velocity at lactate threshold (vLT), velocity at onset of blood lactate accumulation (vOBLA), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and the heart rate–blood lactate profile for calculation of internal TL (individualized training impulse, or iTRIMP). The total distance (TD) and high intensity distance (HID) covered during the BEAST90mod were measured using GPS technology that allowed measurement of performance and external TL. The internal TL was divided by the external TL to form TD:iTRIMP and HID:iTRIMP ratios. Correlation analyses assessed the relationships between fitness measures and the ratios to performance in the BEAST90mod.


vLT, vOBLA, and VO2max showed no significant relationship to TD or HID. HID:iTRIMP significantly correlated with vOBLA (r = .65, P = .04; large), and TD:iTRIMP showed a significant correlation with vLT (r = .69, P = .03; large).


The results suggest that the integrated use of ratios may help in the assessment of fitness, as performance alone showed no significant relationships with fitness.

Akubat is with the Dept of Physical Education and Sports Studies, Newman University, Birmingham, England, UK. Barrett is with Perform Better, Southam, UK. Grant Abt is with the Dept of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, University of Hull, Kingston upon Hull, UK.

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