The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12–19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20–50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = –.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced.
Koury is with the Center for Studies in Nutrition and Stress Factors, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Torres and Trugo are with the Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry and Food, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Address author correspondence to Josely Koury at firstname.lastname@example.org.