Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $107.00

1 year subscription

USD  $142.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $203.00

2 year subscription

USD  $265.00

Purpose: To compare the effects of velocity-based training (VBT) vs percentage-based training (PBT) on strength, speed, and jump performance in academy rugby league players during a 7-wk in-season mesocycle. Methods: A total of 27 rugby league players competing in the Super League U19s Championship were randomized to VBT (n = 12) or PBT (n = 15). Both groups completed a 7-wk resistance-training intervention (2×/wk) that involved the back squat. The PBT group used a fixed load based on a percentage of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM), whereas the VBT group used a modifiable load based on individualized velocity thresholds. Biomechanical and perceptual data were collected during each training session. Back-squat 1-RM, countermovement jump, reactive strength index, sprint times, and back-squat velocity at 40–90% 1-RM were assessed pretraining and posttraining. Results: The PBT group showed likely to most likely improvements in 1-RM strength and reactive strength index, whereas the VBT group showed likely to very likely improvements in 1-RM strength, countermovement jump height, and back-squat velocity at 40% and 60% 1-RM. Sessional velocity and power were most likely greater during VBT compared with PBT (standardized mean differences = 1.8–2.4), while time under tension and perceptual training stress were likely lower (standardized mean differences = 0.49–0.66). The improvement in back-squat velocity at 60% 1-RM was likely greater following VBT compared with PBT (standardized mean difference = 0.50). Conclusion: VBT can be implemented during the competitive season, instead of traditional PBT, to improve training stimuli, decrease training stress, and promote velocity-specific adaptations.

Orange is with the Dept of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Orange and Metcalfe are with Sport, Health and Exercise Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom. Metcalfe, Robinson, Applegarth, and Liefeith are with Wakefield Trinity Rugby League Club, Wakefield, United Kingdom. Robinson and Applegarth are also with the Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom. Liefeith is with the School of Sport, York St John University, York, United Kingdom.

Orange (orange_1@hotmail.co.uk) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Folland JP, Williams AG. The adaptations to strength training: morphological and neurological contributions to increased strength. Sports Med. 2007;37(2):145–168. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    de Souza EO, Tricoli V, Paulo AC, et al. Multivariate analysis in the maximum strength performance. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33(12):970–974. PubMed ID: 22895875 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Thomas K, Brownstein CG, Dent J, Parker P, Goodall S, Howatson G. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery after heavy resistance, jump, and sprint training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50(12):2526–2535. PubMed ID: 30067591 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Gabbett TJ. Influence of fatigue on tackling ability in rugby league players: role of muscular strength, endurance, and aerobic qualities. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(10):e0163161. PubMed ID: 27798634 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Comfort P, Haigh A, Matthews MJ. Are changes in maximal squat strength during preseason training reflected in changes in sprint performance in rugby league players? J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(3):772–776. PubMed ID: 22310512 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Speranza MJ, Gabbett TJ, Johnston RD, Sheppard JM. Effect of strength and power training on tackling ability in semiprofessional rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(2):336–343. PubMed ID: 26813629 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Coutts AJ, Murphy AJ, Dascombe BJ. Effect of direct supervision of a strength coach on measures of muscular strength and power in young rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(2):316–323. PubMed ID: 15142000

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Dankel SJ, Counts BR, Barnett BE, Buckner SL, Abe T, Loenneke JP. Muscle adaptations following 21 consecutive days of strength test familiarization compared with traditional training. Muscle Nerve. 2017;56(2):307–314. PubMed ID: 27875635 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Orange ST, Metcalfe JW, Marshall P, Vince RV, Madden LA, Liefeith A. The test–retest reliability of a commercial linear position transducer (GymAware PowerTool) to measure velocity and power in the back squat and bench press [published online ahead of print June 25, 2018]. J Strength Cond Res. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Sanchez-Medina L, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ. Velocity loss as an indicator of neuromuscular fatigue during resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(9):1725–1734. PubMed ID: 21311352 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Sánchez-Medina L, Pallarés JG, Pérez CE, Morán-Navarro R, González-Badillo JJ. Estimation of relative load from bar velocity in the full back squat exercise. Sports Med Int Open. 2017;1(2):E80–E88. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Banyard HG, Nosaka K, Vernon AD, Haff GG. The reliability of individualized load–velocity profiles. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(6):763–769. PubMed ID: 29140148 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Banyard HG, Tufano JJ, Delgado J, Thompson SW, Nosaka K. Comparison of velocity-based and traditional 1RM-percent-based prescription on acute kinetic and kinematic variables. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14(2):246–255. PubMed ID: 30080424 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Torrejon A, Balsalobre-Fernandez C, Haff GG, Garcia-Ramos A. The load–velocity profile differs more between men and women than between individuals with different strength levels. Sports Biomech. 2019;18(3):245–255. PubMed ID: 29558855 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Dorrell HF, Smith MF, Gee TI. Comparison of velocity-based and traditional percentage-based loading methods on maximal strength and power adaptations [published online ahead of print February 18, 2019]. J Strength Cond Res. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Glatthorn JF, Gouge S, Nussbaumer S, Stauffacher S, Impellizzeri FM, Maffiuletti NA. Validity and reliability of Optojump photoelectric cells for estimating vertical jump height. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(2):556–560. PubMed ID: 20647944 doi:.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Robertson RJ, Goss FL, Rutkowski J, et al. Concurrent validation of the OMNI perceived exertion scale for resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(2):333–341. PubMed ID: 12569225 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Weakley J, Wilson K, Till K, et al. Visual feedback attenuates mean concentric barbell velocity loss, and improves motivation, competitiveness, and perceived workload in male adolescent athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33(9):2420–2425. PubMed ID: 28704314 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Orange S, Metcalfe J, Liefeith A, et al. Validity and reliability of a wearable inertial sensor to measure velocity and power in the back squat and bench press. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;33(9):2398–2408. PubMed ID: 29742745 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Banyard HG, Nosaka K, Sato K, Haff GG. Validity of various methods for determining velocity, force, and power in the back squat. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(9):1170–1176. PubMed ID: 28182500 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Hopkins WG. Spreadsheets for analysis of controlled trials, crossovers and time series. Sportscience. 2017;21:1–4.

  • 22.

    Batterham AM, Hopkins WG. Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2006;1(1):50–57. PubMed ID: 19114737 doi:

  • 23.

    Hopkins WG. How to interpret changes in an athletic performance test. Sportscience. 2004;8(1):1–7.

  • 24.

    Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):3–13. PubMed ID: 19092709 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Pareja-Blanco F, Rodriguez-Rosell D, Sanchez-Medina L, et al. Effects of velocity loss during resistance training on athletic performance, strength gains and muscle adaptations. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;27(7):724–735. PubMed ID: 27038416 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Pareja-Blanco F, Sanchez-Medina L, Suarez-Arrones L, Gonzalez-Badillo JJ. Effects of velocity loss during resistance training on performance in professional soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(4):512–519. PubMed ID: 27618386 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Balshaw TG, Massey GJ, Maden-Wilkinson TM, Tillin NA, Folland JP. Training-specific functional, neural, and hypertrophic adaptations to explosive- vs sustained-contraction strength training. J Appl Physiol. 2016;120(11):1364–1373. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Gabbett TJ. Changes in physiological and anthropometric characteristics of rugby league players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(2):400–408. PubMed ID: 15903382

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Holmyard DJ, Hazeldine RJ. Seasonal variations in the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of international rugby union players. In: Reilly T, Clarys J, Stibbe A, eds. Science and Football II: Proceedings of the second World Congress of Science and Football. London, UK: E and FN Spon; 1993:21–26.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Lagally KM, Robertson RJ. Construct validity of the OMNI resistance exercise scale. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(2):252–256. PubMed ID: 16686549

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 416 416 190
Full Text Views 35 35 10
PDF Downloads 17 17 2