The Isometric Horizontal Push Test: Test–Retest Reliability and Validation Study

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $107.00

1 year subscription

USD $142.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $203.00

2 year subscription

USD $265.00

Purpose: To investigate the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of the isometric horizontal push test (IHPT), a newly designed test that selectively measures the horizontal component of maximal isometric force. Methods: Twenty-four active males with ≥3 years of resistance training experience performed 2 testing sessions of the IHPT, separated by 3 to 4 days of rest. In each session, subjects performed 3 maximal trials of the IHPT with 3 minutes of rest between them. The peak force outputs were collected simultaneously using a strain gauge and the criterion equipment consisting of a floor-embedded force plate. Results: The test–retest reliability of peak force values was nearly perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = ∼.99). Bland–Altman analysis showed excellent agreement between days with nearly no bias for strain gauge 1.2 N (95% confidence interval [CI], −3 to 6 N) and force plate 0.8 N (95% CI, −4 to 6 N). A nearly perfect correlation was observed between the strain gauge and force plate (r = .98, P < .001), with a small bias of 8 N (95% CI, 1.2 to 15 N) in favor of the force plate. The sensitivity of the IHPT was also good, with smallest worthwhile change greater than standard error of measurement for both the strain gauge (smallest worthwhile change: 29 N; standard error of measurement: 17 N; 95% CI, 14 to 20 N) and the force plate (smallest worthwhile change: 29 N; standard error of measurement: 18 N; 95% CI, 14 to 19 N) devices. Conclusions: The high degree of validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the IHPT, coupled with its affordability, portability, ease of use, and time efficacy, point to the potential of the test for assessment and monitoring purposes.

Dello Iacono, Valentin, and Sanderson are with the Dept of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Halperin is with the School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; and Sylvan Adams Sports Inst, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Dello Iacono (antonio.delloiacono@uws.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Comfort PDos’ Santos TBeckham GKStone MHGuppy SNHaff GG. Standardization and methodological considerations for the isometric midthigh pull. Strength Cond J. 2019;41(2):5779. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Blazevich AJGill NNewton RU. Reliability and validity of two isometric squat tests. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(2):298304. PubMed ID: 11991785

  • 3.

    Dos’ Santos TJones PAKelly JMcMahon JJComfort PThomas C. Effect of sampling frequency on isometric midthigh-pull kinetics. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(2):255260. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Wang RHoffman JRTanigawa Set al. Isometric mid-thigh pull correlates with strength, sprint, and agility performance in collegiate rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(11):30513056. PubMed ID: 26982977 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Tillin NAPain MTGFolland J. Explosive force production during isometric squats correlates with athletic performance in rugby union players. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(1):6676. PubMed ID: 22938509 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Haff GGCarlock JMHartman MJet al. Force–time curve characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions of elite women Olympic weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(4):741748. PubMed ID: 16287343

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    McGuigan MRWinchester JBErickson T. The importance of isometric maximum strength in college wrestlers. J Sports Sci Med. 2006;5(CSSI):108113. PubMed ID: 24357982

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Kawamori NNosaka KNewton RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration performance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(3):568573. PubMed ID: 22531618 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Dello Iacono AMartone DPadulo J. Acute effects of drop-jump protocols on explosive performances of elite handball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(11):31223133. PubMed ID: 26958786 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Morin J-BSlawinski JDorel Set al. Acceleration capability in elite sprinters and ground impulse: push more, brake less? J Biomech. 2015;48(12):31493154. PubMed ID: 26209876 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Wu W-LChang J-JWu J-HGuo L-Y. An investigation of rugby scrummaging posture and individual maximum pushing force. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(1):251258. PubMed ID: 17313278 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    James LPRoberts LAHaff GGKelly VGBeckman EM. Validity and reliability of a portable isometric mid-thigh clean pull. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(5):13781386. PubMed ID: 28415068 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Till KMorris RStokes Ket al. Validity of an isometric midthigh pull dynamometer in male youth athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(2):490493. PubMed ID: 29189578

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Urquhart MBishop CTurner AN. Validation of a crane scale for the assessment of portable isometric mid-thigh pulls. J Aust Strength Cond. 2018;26(5):2833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Liow DKHopkins WG. Velocity specificity of weight training for kayak sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(7):12321237. PubMed ID: 12840647 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Hopkins WG. Spreadsheets for analysis of validity and reliability. Sportscience. 2017;19:3642.

Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 215 215 143
Full Text Views 9 9 8
PDF Downloads 10 10 8
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar