Purpose: To investigate the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of the isometric horizontal push test (IHPT), a newly designed test that selectively measures the horizontal component of maximal isometric force. Methods: Twenty-four active males with ≥3 years of resistance training experience performed 2 testing sessions of the IHPT, separated by 3 to 4 days of rest. In each session, subjects performed 3 maximal trials of the IHPT with 3 minutes of rest between them. The peak force outputs were collected simultaneously using a strain gauge and the criterion equipment consisting of a floor-embedded force plate. Results: The test–retest reliability of peak force values was nearly perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = ∼.99). Bland–Altman analysis showed excellent agreement between days with nearly no bias for strain gauge 1.2 N (95% confidence interval [CI], −3 to 6 N) and force plate 0.8 N (95% CI, −4 to 6 N). A nearly perfect correlation was observed between the strain gauge and force plate (r = .98, P < .001), with a small bias of 8 N (95% CI, 1.2 to 15 N) in favor of the force plate. The sensitivity of the IHPT was also good, with smallest worthwhile change greater than standard error of measurement for both the strain gauge (smallest worthwhile change: 29 N; standard error of measurement: 17 N; 95% CI, 14 to 20 N) and the force plate (smallest worthwhile change: 29 N; standard error of measurement: 18 N; 95% CI, 14 to 19 N) devices. Conclusions: The high degree of validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the IHPT, coupled with its affordability, portability, ease of use, and time efficacy, point to the potential of the test for assessment and monitoring purposes.
Dello Iacono, Valentin, and Sanderson are with the Dept of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Halperin is with the School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; and Sylvan Adams Sports Inst, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
TillinNA, PainMTG, FollandJ. Explosive force production during isometric squats correlates with athletic performance in rugby union players. . 2013;31(1):66–76. PubMed ID: 22938509 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.72070422938509)| false
HaffGG, CarlockJM, HartmanMJ, et al. Force–time curve characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions of elite women Olympic weightlifters. . 2005;19(4):741–748. PubMed ID: 1628734316287343)| false
Kawamori N, Nosaka K, Newton RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration performance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(3):568–573. PubMed ID: 22531618 doi:
KawamoriN, NosakaK, NewtonRU.Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration performance in team sport athletes. . 2013;27(3):568–573. PubMed ID: 22531618 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318257805a22531618)| false