Individualized Training Based on Force–Velocity Profiling During Jumping in Ballet Dancers

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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Purpose: Ballet dancers are required to achieve performance feats such as exciting and dramatic elevations. Dancers with a greater jump height can perform a wider range of skills during their flight time and implement more specific technical skills related to the aesthetic components of a dance choreography. New findings suggest the relationship between force and velocity mechanical capabilities (F-V profile) as an important variable for jumping performance. A new field method based on several series of loaded vertical jumps provides information on the theoretical maximal force, theoretical maximal velocity, theoretical maximal power, and the imbalance between force and velocity (F-VIMB). The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of 9 wk of individualized F-V profile-based training during countermovement jumps (CMJs) in female ballet dancers. Methods: CMJ and mechanical outputs of 46 dancers (age = 18.9 [1.1] y, body mass = 54.8 [6.1] kg, height = 163.7 [8.4] cm) were estimated in a pre–post intervention. The control group (10 participants) continued with the standardized training regimen (no resistance training), whereas the experimental group (36 participants) performed 2 sessions over 9 wk of a training plan based on their F-V profile. Results: The experimental group presented significant differences with large effect sizes in CMJ height (29.3 [3.2] cm vs 33.5 [3.72] cm), theoretical maximal force (24.1 [2.2] N/kg vs 29.9 [2.8] N/kg), and theoretical maximal velocity (4 [0.6] m/s vs 3.2 [0.5] m/s). Significant differences with a very large effect size were found in F-VIMB (43.8% [15.3%] vs 24.9% [8.7%]). Conclusion: A training program addressing F-VIMB is an effective way to improve CMJ height in female ballet dancers.

Escobar Álvarez is with the Faculty of Higher Education, South Essex College, Southend-on-Sea, United Kingdom. Fuentes García is with the Faculty of Sport Science, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain. Da Conceição is with LABIOMEP, Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Jiménez-Reyes is with the Center for Sport Studies, Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid, Spain.

Fuentes García (jpfuent@unex.es) is corresponding author.
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