Reliability of Alpine Ski Racing-Specific Field Test: The 80s-Slide-Test

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $112.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $149.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $213.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $284.00

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the test–retest reliability of the 80s-slide-test in well-trained alpine ski racers. Methods: The sample consisted of 8 well-trained alpine ski racers (age = 17.8 [0.7] y old; height = 1.80 [0.09] m; body mass = 72.1 [9.5] kg) who performed a lab-based maximal graded test on cycle ergometer and three 80s-slide-tests in 4 separate sessions. The 80s-slide-test consisting of maximal push-offs performed for 80s on a 8-ft slide board. Oxygen uptake (V˙O2) and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously. Blood lactate ([La]b) was determined immediately prerun, followed by 3 minutes postrun. Three minutes after the completion of the session, the subjects were asked to indicate their rate of perceived exertion using Borg scale ranging from 6 to 20. Total and every 10s mean push-offs number were assessed by camera. Typical errors of measurement, intraclass correlation coefficients, and smallest worthwhile change were calculated. Results: The 80s-slide-test showed strong reliability for total push-offs number, V˙O2peak, V˙O2mean, HRpeak, and HRmean. Δ[La]b, fatigue index, and the rate of perceived exertion were moderately reliable. Conclusion: The 80s-slide-test is a reliable test for well-trained alpine ski racers and can be used easily by trainers.

Bottollier, Cross, Coulmy, and Le Quellec are with the Dépt Sportif et Scientifique (DSS), Fédération Française de Ski (FFS), Annecy, France. Bottollier and Prioux are with the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS)—Rennes, Bruz, France; and Laboratoire Mouvement Sport Santé (M2S) (EA 7470), Université Rennes 2—Haute Bretagne, Rennes Cedex, France. Cross is with the Laboratoire Interuniversitaire de Biologie de la Motricité (EA 7424), Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Chambéry, France.

Bottollier (bottolliervalentin@gmail.com) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(1):313. PubMed ID: 19092709 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Haymes EM, Dickinson AL. Characteristics of elite male and female ski racers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980;12(3):153158. PubMed ID: 7402049 doi:

  • 3.

    Neumayr G, Hoertnagl H, Pfister R, Koler A, Eibl G, Raas E. Physical and physiological factors associated with success in professional alpine skiing. Int J Sports Med. 2003;24(8):571575. PubMed ID: 14598192 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Turnbull JR, Kilding AE, Keogh JWL. Physiology of alpine skiing. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19(2):146155. PubMed ID: 19335589 doi:

  • 5.

    Patterson C, Raschner C, Platzer HP. The 2.5-minute loaded repeated jump test: evaluating anaerobic capacity in alpine ski racers with loaded countermovement jumps. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(9):26112620. PubMed ID: 24584044 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Gross M, Hemund K, Vogt M. High intensity training and energy production during 90-second box jump in junior alpine skiers. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(6):15811587. PubMed ID: 24276296 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Burtscher M, Raschner C, Zallinger G, Schwameder H, Müller E. Comparison of cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during conventional and carving skiing. In Müller E, ed. Science and Skiing. Vol. 2. London: Chapman & Hall; 2000:5455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Grenier JG, Hintzy F, Antichan F, Coulmy N. Energy expenditure and respective implications of the lactic and aerobic sources over a giant slalom in young ski racers. Sci Sports. 2012;28(1):2935. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Hill DW. Energy system contributions in middle-distance running events. J Sports Sci. 1999;17(6):477483. PubMed ID: 10404496 doi:

  • 10.

    Craig NP, Norton KI. Characteristics of track cycling. Sports Med. 2001;31(7):457468. PubMed ID: 11428683 doi:

  • 11.

    Baum K, Hoy S, Leyk D, Essfeld D. An incremental exercise test simulating the muscular activity of slalom. In Müller E, Schwameder H, Kornexl E, Raschner C, eds. Sciences of Skiing 1. London: Chapman & Hall; 1997:479486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Berg HE, Eiken O. Muscle control in elite alpine skiing. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(7):10651067. PubMed ID: 10416571 doi:

  • 13.

    Szmedra L, Joohee IM, Nioka S, Chance B, Rundell KW. Hemoglobin/myoglobin oxygen desaturation during Alpine skiing. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(2):232236. PubMed ID: 11224811 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Sheppard JM, Young WB. Agility literature review: classifications, training and testing. J Sports Sci. 2006;24(9):919932. PubMed ID: 16882626 doi:

  • 15.

    Piucco T, dos Santos SG, de Lucas RD, Dias JA. A novel incremental slide board test for speed skaters: reliability analysis and comparison with a cycling test. Apunts Med Esport. 2015;50(186):5763. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Piucco T, O’Connell J, Stefanyshyn D, et al. . Incremental testing design on slide board for speed skaters: comparison between two different protocols. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(11):31163121. PubMed ID: 26937770 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Piucco T, Diefenthaeler F, Soares R, Murias JM, Millet GY. Validation of a maximal incremental skating test performed on a slide board: comparison with treadmill skating. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;24:115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Gilgien M, Reid R, Raschner C, Supej M, Holmberg H-C. The training of Olympic alpine ski racers. Front Physiol. 2018;9:1772. PubMed ID: 30622477 doi:

  • 19.

    Hydren JR, Volek JS, Maresh CM, Comstock BA, Kraemer WJ. Review of strength and conditioning for alpine ski racing. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;35(1):1028. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Heil D, Wilcox A, Quinn C. Cardiorespiratory responses to seat tube variation during steady state cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27:730735. PubMed ID: 7674878

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Lamarra NB, Whipp BJ, Ward SA, Wasserman K. Effect of interbreath fluctuations on characterizing exercise gas exchange kinetics. J Appl Physiol. 1987;62(5):20032012. PubMed ID: 3110126 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Borg G. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1970;2:9298. PubMed ID: 5523831

  • 23.

    Bishop D, Spencer M, Duffield R, et al. . The validity of a repeated sprint ability test. J Sci Med Sport. 2001;4(1):1929. PubMed ID: 11339490 doi:

  • 24.

    Spencer M, Fitzsimons M, Dawson B, et al. . Reliability of a repeated-sprint test for field-hockey. J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9(1–2):181184. PubMed ID: 16581293 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Hopkins WG, Hawley JA, Burke LM. Design and analysis of research on sport performance enhancement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(3):472485. PubMed ID: 10188754 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Hopkins WG. Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Med. 2000;30(1):115. PubMed ID: 10907753 doi:

  • 27.

    McGraw KO, Wong SP. Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients. Psychol Methods. 1996;1(1):3046. doi:

  • 28.

    Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1988.

  • 29.

    Wittekind AL, Micklewright D, Beneke R. Teleoanticipation in all-out short-duration cycling. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(2):114119. PubMed ID: 19679576 doi:

  • 30.

    Tucker R, Noakes TD. The physiological regulation of pacing strategy during exercise: a critical review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43(6):e1. PubMed ID: 19224909 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Noakes TD, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert EV. From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38(4):511514. PubMed ID: 15273198 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Baumgartner TA, Jackson AS. Measurement for Evaluation in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 3rd ed. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers; 1987.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 267 267 42
Full Text Views 10 10 1
PDF Downloads 4 4 0