Bench Press 1-Repetition Maximum Estimation Through the Individualized Load–Velocity Relationship: Comparison of Different Regression Models and Minimal Velocity Thresholds

in International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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Purpose: To compare the accuracy of nine 1-repetition maximum (1RM) prediction methods during the paused and touch-and-go bench press exercises performed in a Smith machine. Method: A total of 86 men performed 2 identical sessions (incremental loading test until reaching the 1RM followed by a set to failure) in a randomized order during the paused and touch-and-go bench press exercises. Individualized load–velocity relationships were modeled by linear and polynomial regression models considering 4 loads (45%–60%–75%–90% of 1RM) (multiple-point methods) and considering only 2 loads (45%–90% of 1RM) by a linear regression (2-point method). Three minimal velocity thresholds were used: the general velocity of 0.17 m·s−1 (general velocity of the 1RM [V1RM]), the velocity obtained when lifting the 1RM load (individual V1RM), and the velocity obtained during the last repetition of a set to failure. Results: The 1RM prediction methods were generally valid (range: r = .96–.99, standard error of the estimate = 2.8–4.9 kg or 4.6%–8.0% of 1RM). The multiple-point linear method (2.79 [2.29] kg) was more precise than the multiple-point polynomial method (3.54 [3.31] kg; P = .013), but no significant differences were observed when compared with the 2-point method (3.09 [2.66] kg, P = .136). The velocity of the last repetition of a set to failure (3.47 [2.97] kg) was significantly less precise than the individual V1RM (2.91 [2.75] kg, P = .009) and general V1RM (3.00 [2.65] kg, P = .010). Conclusions: Linear regression models and a general minimal velocity threshold of 0.17 m·s−1 should be recommended to obtain a quick and precise estimation of the 1RM during the bench press exercise performed in a Smith machine.

Janicijevic is with the Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China; and The Research Centre, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. Jukic is with the Sport Performance Research Inst New Zealand (SPRINZ), Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. Weakley is with the School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; and the Carnegie Applied Rugby Research (CARR) Centre, Inst for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom. García-Ramos is with the Dept of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; and the Dept of Sports Sciences and Physical Conditioning, Faculty of Education, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile.

García-Ramos (amagr@ugr.es) is corresponding author.
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