Purpose: To determine whether elite female rugby sevens players are exposed to core temperatures (Tc) during training in the heat that replicate the temperate match demands previously reported and to investigate whether additional clothing worn during a hot training session meaningfully increases the heat load experienced. Methods: A randomized parallel-group study design was employed, with all players completing the same approximately 70-minute training session (27.5°C–34.8°C wet bulb globe temperature) and wearing a standardized training ensemble (synthetic rugby shorts and training tee [control (CON); n = 8]) or additional clothing (standardized training ensemble plus compression garments and full tracksuit [additional clothing (AC); n = 6]). Groupwise differences in Tc, sweat rate, GPS-measured external locomotive output, rating of perceived exertion, and perceptual thermal load were compared. Results: Mean (P = .006, ) and peak (P < .001, ) Tc were higher in AC compared with CON during the training session. There were no differences in external load (F4,9 = 0.155, P = .956, Wilks Λ = 0.935, ) or sweat rate (P = .054, Cohen d = 1.09). A higher rating of perceived exertion (P = .016, Cohen d = 1.49) was observed in AC compared with CON. No exertional-heat-illness symptomology was reported in either group. Conclusions: Player Tc is similar between training performed in hot environments and match play in temperate conditions when involved for >6 minutes. Additional clothing is a viable and effective method to increase heat strain in female rugby sevens players without compromising training specificity or external locomotive capacity.
Henderson, Novak, Fransen, Coutts, and Taylor are with the Faculty of Health, School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, and the Human Performance Research Centre, University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Sydney, NSW, Australia. Henderson and Novak are also with Rugby Australia (RA), Sydney, NSW, Australia. Chrismas is with the Sport Science Program, College of Arts and Science, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar. Stevens is with the School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia. Taylor is with the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom, and the Athlete Health and Performance Research Center, ASPETAR, Qatar Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
TylerCJ, ReeveT, HodgesGJ, CheungSS. The effects of heat adaptation on physiology, perception and exercise performance in the heat: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2016;46(11):1699–1724. doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0538-5)| false
HendersonMJ, ChrismasBCR, StevensCJ, CouttsAJ, TaylorL. Changes in core temperature during an elite female rugby sevens tournament. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2020;15(4):571–580. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2019-037532023538)| false
TaylorL, ThorntonHR, LumleyN, StevensCJ. Alterations in core temperature during World Rugby Sevens Series tournaments in temperate and warm environments. Eur J Sport Sci. 2019;19(4):432–441. doi:10.1080/17461391.2018.152794930305001)| false
TraversGJS, NicholsDS, FarooqA, RacinaisS, PériardJD. Validation of an ingestible temperature data logging and telemetry system during exercise in the heat. Temperature. 2016;3(2):208–219. doi:10.1080/23328940.2016.1171281)| false
BongersC, DaanenHAM, BogerdCP, HopmanMTE, EijsvogelsTMH. Validity, reliability, and inertia of four different temperature capsule systems. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50(1):169–175. doi:10.1249/MSS.000000000000140328816921)| false
TaylorL, StevensCJ, ThorntonHR, PoulosN, ChrismasBCR. Limiting the rise in core temperature during a rugby sevens warm-up with an ice vest. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14(9):1212–1218. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2018-082130840530)| false
PeriardJD, RacinaisS, TimpkaT, et al. Strategies and factors associated with preparing for competing in the heat: a cohort study at the 2015 IAAF World Athletics Championships. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51(4):264–270. doi:
PeriardJD, RacinaisS, TimpkaT, et al. Strategies and factors associated with preparing for competing in the heat: a cohort study at the 2015 IAAF World Athletics Championships. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51(4):264–270. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096579)| false
ThorntonHR, NelsonAR, DelaneyJA, SerpielloFR, DuthieGM. Interunit reliability and effect of data-processing methods of Global Positioning Systems. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14(4):432–438. doi:
ThorntonHR, NelsonAR, DelaneyJA, SerpielloFR, DuthieGM. Interunit reliability and effect of data-processing methods of Global Positioning Systems. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019;14(4):432–438. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2018-027330204529)| false
YoungAJ, SawkaMN, EpsteinY, DecristofanoB, PandolfKB. Cooling different body surfaces during upper and lower body exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1987;63(3):1218–1223. doi:10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.1248)| false
StephensJ, ArgusC, DrillerM. The relationship between body composition and thermal responses to hot and cold water immersion. J Hum Perform Extreme Environ. 2014;11(2):1. doi:10.7771/2327-2937.1051)| false
AugheyRJ, GoodmanCA, McKennaMJ. Greater chance of high core temperatures with modified pacing strategy during team sport in the heat. J Sci Med Sport. 2014;17(1):113–118. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.02.01323689104)| false