The Duality of Sport Social Workers Coaching Critical Positive Youth Development Within Competitive Youth Sport

Click name to view affiliation

Cecelia Tarr Insights Group Psychological & Coaching Services, Rye, NH, USA

Search for other papers by Cecelia Tarr in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Tarkington J. Newman University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA

Search for other papers by Tarkington J. Newman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6932-1932 *
,
Fernando Santos Escola Superior de Educação do Instituto Politécnico do Porto; inED, Centro de Investigação e Inovação em Educação (inED), Porto, Portugal

Search for other papers by Fernando Santos in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3349-6837
, and
Stéphanie Turgeon Université du Québec en Outaouais, Gatineau, QC, Canada

Search for other papers by Stéphanie Turgeon in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8497-2082
Restricted access

To meet the diverse needs of youth athletes within contemporary society, the privilege and responsibility of youth sport coaching must be reimagined. Critical positive youth development (CPYD)—which is grounded in Freire’s critical consciousness—emphasizes the urgency to empower youth to promote social justice and increase their ability to contribute to societal change. Considering the scarcity of CPYD in coach education, sport social workers may offer unique educational experiences and critical learning opportunities that may help fulfill a CPYD mandate within the youth sport landscape. From a social constructivist perspective, the aim of the current study was to explore the duality of sport social workers coaching competitive youth sport. Findings from 10 sport social workers suggest that the values, knowledge, and skills of the social work profession—particularly sport social work—seem to offer a transferable skillset and lessons to be emulated by CPYD coach education. For instance, because of their unique education and training, social workers are taught to use a strengths-based approach, maintain a holistic perspective, and teach life skills that contribute to PYD. However, findings also emphasize the notion that education may not solve all challenges concerning the need to foster CPYD, as many other variables make up the sport system.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Anderson-Butcher, D., & Bates, S. (2021). Social work and youth sport. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 38, 359365. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-021-00777-6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bean, C., Kendellen, K., & Forneris, T. (2016). Moving beyond the gym: Exploring life skill transfer within a female physical activity-based life skills program. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(3), 274290. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2015.1124155

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bean, C., Kramers, S., Forneris, T., & Camiré, M. (2018). The implicit/explicit continuum of life skills development and transfer. Quest, 70(4), 456470. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2018.1451348

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beasley, L., Hardin, R., Magliocca, J., & Smith, Z. (2021). The experiences of social workers in NCAA division I athletic departments. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 15(3), 193218. https://doi.org/10.1080/19357397.2021.1916307

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beasley, L., Newman, T., & Hardin, R. (2022). Applying social work values to practice in sport: Perspectives of licensed social workers employed in collegiate athletics. Advances in Social Work, 21(4), 12121228. https://doi.org/10.18060/25311

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2021). One size fits all? What counts as quality practice in (reflexive) thematic analysis? Qualitative Research in Psychology, 18(3), 328352. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2020.1769238

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brodsky, A. (2008). Negative case analysis. In L.M. Given (Ed.), The Sage encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (pp. 552553). Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bruner, M., McLaren, C., Sutcliffe, J., Gardner, L., Lubans, D., Smith, J., & Vella, S. (2021). The effect of sport-based interventions on positive youth development: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2021.1875496

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M. (2015a). Examining high school teacher-coaches’ perspective on relationship building with student-athletes. International Sport Coaching Journal, 2(2), 125136. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2014-0098

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M. (2015b). Reconciling competition and positive youth development in sport. STAPS, 109, 2539. https://www.cairn.info/revue-staps-2015-3-page-25.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M. (2021). A move to rethink life skills as assemblages: A call to postqualitative inquiry. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 14(6), 900915. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2021.2002395

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M., Newman, T., Bean, C., & Strachan, L. (2021). Reimagining positive youth development and life skills in sport through a social justice lens. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 34(6), 10581076. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2021.1958954

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M., & Santos, F. (2019). Promoting positive youth development and life skills in youth sport: Challenges and opportunities amidst increased professionalization. Journal of Sport Pedagogy and Research, 5(1), 2734.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coakley, J. (2016). Positive youth development through sport: Myths, beliefs, and realities. In N. Holt (Ed.), Positive youth development through sport (2nd ed., pp. 2133). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Council on Social Work Education. (2022). About CSWE. https://www.cswe.org/

  • Denison, E., Bevan, N., & Jeanes, R. (2021). Reviewing evidence of LGBTQ+ discrimination and exclusion in sport. Sport Management Review, 24(3), 389409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2020.09.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dorsch, T., Smith, A., Blazo, J., Coakley, J., Côté, J., Wagstaff, C., Warner, S., & King, M. (2020). Toward an integrated understanding of the youth sport system. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 93(1), 105119. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2020.1810847

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freire, P. (1972). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Continuum.

  • Freire, P. (2007). Pedagogia da Autonomia: Saberes necessários à prática educativa. Paz e Terra.

  • Giroux, H. (2022). Pedagogy of resistance: Against manufactured ignorance. Bloomsbury Academic.

  • Gonzalez, M., Kokozos, M., Byrd, C., & McKee, K. (2020). Critical positive youth development: A framework for centering critical consciousness. Journal of Youth Development, 15(6), 2443. https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2020.859

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gould, D. (2019). The current youth sport landscape: Identifying critical research issues. Kinesiology Review, 8(3), 150161. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2019-0034

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gould, D., & Carson, S. (2008). Life skills development through sport: Current status and future directions. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1(1), 5878. https://doi.org/10.1080/17509840701834573

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guba, E., & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105117). Sage Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartmann, D., & Kwauk, C. (2011). Sport and development: An overview, critique, and reconstruction. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 35(3), 284305. https://doi.org/10.1177/2F0193723511416986

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hawkins, J., Jenson, J., Catalano, R., Fraser, M., Botvin, G., Shapiro, V., ... Stone, S. (2015). Unleashing the power of prevention. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. http://nam.edu/perspectives-2015-unleashing-the-power-of-prevention/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holt, N. (2016). Positive youth development through sport (2nd ed.). Routledge.

  • Holt, N., Neely, K., Slater, L., Camiré, M., Côté, J., Fraser-Thomas, J., ... Tamminen, K. (2017). A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(1), 149. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2016.1180704

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacobs, J., & Wright, P. (2018). Transfer of life skills in sport-based youth development programs: A conceptual framework bridging learning to application. Quest, 70(1), 8199. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2017.1348304

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeanes, R., Spaaij, R., Farquharson, K., McGrath, G., Magee, J., Lusher, D., & Gorman, S. (2021). Gender relations, gender equity, and community sports spaces. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 45(6), 545567. https://doi.org/10.1177/2F0193723520962955

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kendellen, K., & Camiré, M. (2017). Examining the life skill development and transfer experiences of former high school athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15(4), 395408. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2015.1114502

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kramers, S., Camiré, M., & Bean, C. (2020). Examining program quality in a national junior golf development program. International Sport Coaching Journal, 7(2), 139150. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2019-0025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kramers, S., Camiré, M., & Bean, C. (2021). Profiling patterns of congruence in youth golf coaches’ life skills teaching. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 33(2), 218237. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2019.1596178

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kramers, S., Turgeon, S., Bean, C., Sabourin, C., & Camiré, M. (2020). Examining the roles of coaching experience and coach training on coaches’ perceived life skills teaching. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 15(4), 576583. https://doi.org/10.1177/2F1747954120922367

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lerner, R., Lerner, J., Murry, V., Smith, E., Bowers, E., Geldhof, G., & Buckingham, M. (2021). Positive youth development in 2020: Theory, research, programs, and the promotion of social justice. Journal of Research on Adolescence31(4), 11141134. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12609

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Love, A., Deeb, A., & Waller, S. (2019). Social justice, sport and racism: A position statement. Quest, 71(2), 227238. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2019.1608268

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lower-Hoppe, L., Anderson-Butcher, D., Lo, M., & Turner, B. (2020). The influence of organizational climate and process on youth outcomes: A case study of a community youth sport organization. Leisure/Loisir, 44(4), 489520. https://doi.org/10.1080/14927713.2020.1815564

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacDonald, D., Camiré, M., Erickson, K., & Santos, F. (2020). Positive youth development related athlete experiences and coach behaviors following a target coach education course. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 15(5–6), 621630. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954120942017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magier, E., Newman, T., Kimiecik, C., Okamoto, K., Beasley, L., Shute, L., & Tucker, A. (2022). Understanding the needs of social workers in sport settings: Opportunities for specialized education and training. Journal of Social Work Education. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/10437797.2021.2019641

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Majed, E., Ruiz, Y., Amireault, S., Yumary, R., Amireault, S., Reed, J., Snyder, F., McDonough, M., & Blankenship, B. (2021). Examining positive youth development interventions with a physical activity component to address bullying among pre- and early adolescents: A critical review of the literature. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 42(3), 389314. https://doi.org/10.1177/02724316211036748

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McHenry, L., Beasley, L., Zakrajsek, R., & Hardin, R. (2021). Mental performance and mental health services in sport: A call for interprofessional competence and collaboration. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 36(4), 520528. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2021.1963218

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, M., Ballesteros, J., & Hansen, C. (2018). The role of social work values in promoting the functioning and well-being of athletes. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics, 15(2), 4861.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moreau, N., Thibault Lévesque, J., Molgat, M., Jaimes, A., Parlavecchio, L., Chanteau, O., & Plante, C. (2018). Opening the black box of a sports-based programme for vulnerable youth: The crucial role of social bonds. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 10(3), 291305. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2018.1430060

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nash, C., MacPherson, A., & Collins, D. (2022). Reflections on reflection: Clarifying and promoting use in experienced coaches. Frontiers in Psychology,  13, Article 867720, 112. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.867720

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Association of Social Workers. (2022). Code of ethics of the national association of social workers. https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, T., Magier, E., Okamoto, K., Kimiecik, C., Shute, L., Beasley, L., & Tucker, A. (2022). Social work in sport: Playmakers in the athletic arena. Journal of Social Work, 22(3), 692714. https://doi.org/10.1177/14680173211009743

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, T., McCray, K., Lower-Hoppe, L., Ingram, D., Rockhill, C., Ohanasian, J., & Simmons-Horton, S. (2022). Healthy masculinity construction: The influence of race, faith, and athletics. Children & Society. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/0.1111/chso.12634

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, T., Okamoto, K., Kimiecik, C., Magier, E., Beasley, L., Shute, L., Knuettel, M., Tarr, C., & Tucker, A. (2022). Sport as an emerging area of social work practice: New playmakers in the athletic arena. Sport Social Work Journal, 1(1), 3552. https://openjournals.bsu.edu/sportsocialworkjournal/article/view/3703

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, T., Santos, F., Cardoso, A., & Pereira, P. (2020). The experiential nature of coach education within a positive youth development perspective: Implications for practice and research. International Sport Coaching Journal, 7(3), 398406. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2019-0106

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, T., Santos, F., Pierce, S., Collins, K., & Mercier, V. (2022). Coach education and development within a contemporary social justice society: Implications for future research and potential pitfalls. Quest, 74(3), 234250. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2022.2080082

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, T., Turgeon, S., Moore, M., Bean, C., Lee, L., Knuettel, M., & Osmers Rahill, C. (2022). The dual pandemic: COVID-19, systemic racism, and college student-athlete mental health. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 21(1), 156173. http://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2022.2026997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osborn, P., & Karandikar, S. (2022). Practice-based knowledge perspectives of cultural competence in social work. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/15313204.2022.2046228

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parlavecchio, L., Moreau, N., Favier-Ambrosini, B., & Gadais, T. (2021). Principles-of-action used by an eductrainer to create social bonds through sport in a psychosocial intervention program. Journal of Sport for Development, 9(2), 3053. https://jsfd.org/2021/07/20/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pierce, S., Gould, D., & Camiré, M. (2017). Definition and model of life skills transfer. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(1), 186211. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2016.1199727

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, E., Newman, T.J., Scheadler, T.R., Lower-Hoppe, L.M., & Baeth, A. (2023). The unique lived experiences of LGBQ athletes: A collegiate women’s rugby club team as an inclusive & empowering community. Journal of Homosexuality. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2022.2160684

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Royse, D., Thyer, B., & Padgett, D. (2009). Program evaluation: An introduction. Cengage Learning.

  • Santos, F. (2022). How can we use social justice lenses to conceptualize contemporary sport? Continuing to make sense of potential challenges and future pathways across socio-cultural contexts. Sport Social Work Journal, 2(1), 16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, F., Camiré, M., MacDonald, D.J., Campos, H., Conceição, M., & Silva, P. (2017). Youth sport coaches’ perspective on positive youth development and its worth in mainstream coach education courses. International Sport Coaching Journal, 4(1), 3846. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2016-0092

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, F., Gould, D., & Strachan, L. (2019). Research on positive youth development-focused coach education programs: Future pathways and applications. International Sport Coaching Journal, 6(1), 132138. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2018-0013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B., & McGannon, K. (2018). Developing rigor in qualitative research: Problems and opportunities within sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 101121. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2017.1317357

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sparkes, A., & Smith, B. (2009). Judging the quality of qualitative inquiry: Criteriology and relativism in action. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(5), 491497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.02.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strachan, L., MacDonald, J., & Côté, J. (2016). Project SCORE! Coaches’ perceptions of an online tool to promote positive youth development in sport. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 11, 108115. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954115624827

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strachan, L., Santos, F., & MacDonald, D.J. (2021). Insights into creating and implementing project score! Lessons learned and future pathways. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 12(2), 114126. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2020.1798574

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tien, J. (2019). Teaching identity vs. positionality: Dilemmas in social justice education. Curriculum Inquiry, 49(5), 526550. https://doi.org/10.1080/03626784.2019.1696150

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tufford, L., & Newman, P. (2012). Bracketing in qualitative research. Qualitative Social Work, 11, 8096. https://doi.org/10.1177/2F1473325010368316

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turgeon, S., Newman, T., Lee, L., Nicholas, O., & Bean, C. (2022). Social justice attitudes and behavioral intentions of NCAA student-athletes: The role of life skills [Manuscript submitted for publication].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vella, S., Swann, C., & Tamminen, K. (2021). Reflections on the field of mental health in sport: Critical issues and ways of moving forward. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 33(1), 123129. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2020.1854898

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitley, M., Smith, A., Dorsch, T., Bowers, M., & Centeio, E. (2021). Re-envisioning postpandemic youth sport to meet young people’s mental, emotional, and social needs. Translational Journal of the ACSM, 6(4), 17. https://doi.org/10.1249/TJX.0000000000000177

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 847 577 55
Full Text Views 71 63 2
PDF Downloads 61 49 4