How Do Adult-Oriented Coaching Practices Change Over Time and Correspond With Changes in Key Criterion Outcomes? An 8-Week Study

Click name to view affiliation

Derrik Motz Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada

Search for other papers by Derrik Motz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2674-7802 *
,
Bradley W. Young School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Search for other papers by Bradley W. Young in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4496-8502
,
Scott Rathwell Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada

Search for other papers by Scott Rathwell in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8775-1664
, and
Bettina Callary Sport and Physical Activity Leadership, Cape Breton University, Cape Breton, NS, Canada

Search for other papers by Bettina Callary in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7470-3487
Restricted access

The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey assesses how often coaches use practices tailored to adult and older adult athletes. Cross-sectionally, said practices contribute to a quality masters sport experience for masters athletes (MAs); however, the stability of adult-oriented coaching over time and whether changes in coaching over time correspond with psychosocial outcomes for MAs is unknown. Therefore, coaches (N = 32; Mage = 49.0) and MAs (N = 103; Mage = 51.5) completed the Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey twice 8 weeks apart. MAs also completed criterion measures for facets of the coach–athlete relationship, basic needs satisfaction, and thwarting. Our first question was whether mean group values for adult-oriented coaching changed over time. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated stability of coaches’ and MAs’ scores. Our second question was whether changes in adult-oriented coaching corresponded with changes on criterion measures. Path analyses showed increased perceived frequency of adult-oriented coaching that, generally, was associated with enhancing three facets of the coach–athlete relationship, relatedness satisfaction, autonomy satisfaction, and reducing competency thwarting. The discussion centers on how adult-oriented coaching might facilitate quality sporting relationships, empowerment, and mastery in adult sport programming. These nonintervention results are interpreted with an eye toward considerations in future Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey-based coaching interventions.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Appleby, K., & Dieffenbach, K. (2016). “Older and faster”: Exploring elite masters cyclists’ involvement in competitive sport. The Sport Psychologist, 30(1), 1323. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2014-0110

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartholomew, K.J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R.M., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: Assessing the darker side of athletic experience. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33(1), 75102. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.33.1.75

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bompa, T., & Haff, G. (2009). Periodization: Theory and methodology of training (5th ed.). Human Kinetics.

  • Callary, B., Currie, C., & Young, B.W. (2020). Insights into the importance of relational coaching for Masters sport. International Sport Coaching Journal, 7(3), 390397. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2019-0021

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callary, B., & Gearity, B. (2021). Coach development and education for the Masters coach. In B. Callary, B.W. Young, & S. Rathwell (Eds.), Coaching Masters athletes: Advancing research and practice in adult sport (pp. 151164). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callary, B., Rathwell, S., MacLellan, J., & Young, B. (2015). Coaching Masters dragon boaters—Perspectives from a coach and an athlete. Presented at the 10th International Council of Coaching Excellence Global Coach Conference.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callary, B., Rathwell, S., & Young, B.W. (2015). Masters swimmers’ experiences with coaches: What they want, what they need, what they get. SAGE Open, 5(2), 114. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015588960

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callary, B., Rathwell, S., & Young, B.W. (2017). Alignment of masters swim coaches’ approaches with the andragogy in practice model. International Sport Coaching Journal, 4(2), 177190. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2016-0102

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callary, B., Rathwell, S., & Young, B.W. (2021). Adult learning in sport: Implications for psycho-social coaching competencies. In B. Callary, B.W. Young, & S. Rathewell (Eds.), Coaching Masters athletes: Advancing research and practice in adultsport (pp. 1530). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2016-0102

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callary, B., & Young, B.W. (2020). What’s good for the goose is good for the gander: Using adult learning principles to synergize coach education and coaching practices in Masters sport. In B. Callary & B. Gearity (Eds.), Coach education and development in sport: Instructional strategies (pp. 215225). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chu, T.L., & Zhang, T. (2019). The roles of coaches, peers, and parents in athletes’ basic psychological needs: A mixed-studies review. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 14(4), 569588. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954119858458

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Routledge.

  • Currie, C., Callary, B., & Young, B.W. (2021). Glitter and guts: Narrative portrayal of sportswomen’s experiences on a coached Masters team. SAGE Open, 11(4), 114. https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440211054485

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Currie, C., Young, B.W., & Callary, B. (2021). Mutuality in a coached adult sport team: The team sport model of interdependence. Sports Coaching Review, 11(3), 298323. https://doi.org/10.1080/21640629.2021.1952810

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Denis, D.J. (2019). SPSS data analysis for univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. Wiley.

  • Devlieger, I., & Rosseel, Y. (2017). Factor score path analysis: An alternative for SEM? Methodology, 13(Suppl. 1), 3138. https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-2241/a000130

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dionigi, R.A., Eime, R., Young, B.W., Callary, B., & Rathwell, S. (2021). Coaching older adults (aged 55+). In B. Ives, L. Gale, P. Potrac, & L. Nelson (Eds.), Community sports coaching (pp. 147166). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eime, R., Harvey, J.T., & Charity, M.J. (2019). Sport drop-out during adolescence: Is it real, or an artefact of sampling behaviour? International Journal of Sport Policy & Politics, 11(4), 715726. https://doi.org/10.1080/19406940.2019.1630468

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrari, G., Bloom, G., Gilbert, W., & Caron, J. (2016). Experiences of competitive Masters swimmers: Desired coaching characteristics and perceived benefits. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15(4), 409422. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2015.1114504

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gayman, A.M., Fraser-Thomas, J., Dionigi, R.A., Horton, S., & Baker, J. (2017). Is sport good for older adults? A systematic review of psychosocial outcomes of older adults’ sport participation. International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10(1), 164185. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2016.1199046

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halquist, D., & Musanti, S. (2010). Critical incidents and reflection: Turning points that challenge the researcher and create opportunities for knowing. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 23(4), 449461. https://doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2010.492811

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hayes, F.H. (2022). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (3rd ed.). Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodge, K., Allen, J.B., & Smellie, L. (2008). Motivation in Masters sport: Achievement and social goals. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 9(2), 157176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.03.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoffmann, M.D., Young, B.W., Rathwell, S., & Callary, B. (2019). Comparing Masters athletes with varying degrees of coaching for psychological need satisfaction and frustration. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 15(1), 38. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954119887300

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IBM. (2017). IBM SPSS statistics 25 for windows.

  • Jenkin, C.R., Eime, R.M., Westerbeek, H., & vam Uffelen, J.G. (2018). Sport for adults aged 50+ years: Participation benefits and barriers. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 26(3), 363371. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2017-0092

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jowett, S., & Ntoumanis, N. (2004). The coach-athlete relationship questionnaire (CART‐Q): Development and initial validation. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 14(4), 245257. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2003.00338.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelloway, E.K. (2015). Using Mplus for structural equation modeling: A researcher’s guide (2nd ed.). SAGE.

  • Kim, H.-Y. (2013). Statistical notes for clinical researchers: Assessing normal distribution (2) using skewness and kurtosis. Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics, 38(1), 5254. https://doi.org/10.5395/rde.2013.38.1.52

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kowal, J., & Fortier, M.S. (2000). Testing relationships from the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation using flow as a motivational consequence. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 71(2), 171181. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2000.10608895

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lance, C.E., Butts, M.M., & Michels, L.C. (2006). The sources of four commonly reported cutoff criteria. Organizational Research Methods, 9(2), 202220. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428105284919

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Langan, E., Blake, C., & Lonsdale, C. (2013). Systematic review of the effectiveness of interpersonal coach education interventions on athlete outcomes. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 14(1), 3749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.06.007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leech, N.L., Barrett, K.C., & Morgan, G.A. (2014). IBM SPSS for intermediate statistics: Use and interpretation (5th ed.). Routledge.

  • Lyons, K., & Dionigi, R. (2007). Transcending emotional community: A qualitative examination of older adults and Masters’ sports participation. Leisure Sciences, 29(4), 375389. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400701394881

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacLellan, J., Callary, B., & Young, B.W. (2018). Same coach, different approach? How masters and youth athletes perceive learning opportunities in training. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 13(2), 167178. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954117727202

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacLellan, J., Callary, B., & Young, B.W. (2019). Adult learning principles in Masters sport: A coach’s perspective. The Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 31(1), 3150. https://cjsae.library.dal.ca/index.php/cjsae/article/view/5424

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maxwell, S.E., & Howard, G.S. (1981). Change scores—Necessarily anathema? Educational & Psychological Measurement, 41(3), 747756. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316448104100313

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Motz, D., Rathwell, S., Young, B.W., & Callary, B. (2022). Adult-oriented coaching practices are positively associated with quality sport experience criteria. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197x.2022.2043927

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (2017). Mplus user’s guide (8th ed.). Muthén & Muthén.

  • Ng, J.Y., Lonsdale, C., & Hodge, K. (2011). The Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale (BNSSS): Instrument development and initial validity evidence. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 12(3), 257264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.10.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rathwell, S., Callary, B., & Young, B.W. (2015). Exploring the context of coached Masters swim programs: A narrative approach. International Journal of Aquatic Research & Education, 9(1), 7088. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijare.2014-0068

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rathwell, S., Young, B.W., Callary, B., Motz, D., Currie, C., & Hoffmann, M.D. (2020). The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey: A measurement tool designed to assess coaching behaviours tailored for adult athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 42(5), 368385. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2020-0031

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santi, G., Bruton, A., Pietrantoni, L., & Mellalieu, S. (2014). Sport commitment and participation in Masters swimmers: The influence of coach and teammates. European Journal of Sport Science, 14(8), 852860. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2014.915990

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2019). Using multivariate statistics (7th ed.). Pearson.

  • Young, B.W., & Callary, B. (2018). Doing “more for adult sport”: Promotional and programmatic efforts to offset adults’ psychosocial obstacles. In R. Dionigi& M. Gard (Eds.), Sport and physical activity across the lifespan: Critical perspectives (pp. 263282). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-48562-5_14

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, B.W., Callary, B., & Rathwell, S. (2018). Psychological considerations for the older athlete. In O. Braddick, et al. (Eds.), Oxford research encyclopedia of psychology. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190236557.013.180

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, B.W., Callary, B., & Rathwell, S. (2021). Giving due deliberation to Masters athletes: The time has come. SIRCuit Magazine. https://sirc.ca/blog/giving-due-deliberation-to-masters-athletes/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, B.W., Rathwell, S., & Callary, B. (2020). Testing a coaching assessment tool derived from adult education in adult sport. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 47, Article 101632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.101632

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 524 317 7
Full Text Views 84 77 4
PDF Downloads 54 36 4