The Evolution and Learner-Centered Status of a Coach Education Program

in International Sport Coaching Journal
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $41.00

1 year subscription

USD  $54.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $77.00

2 year subscription

USD  $101.00

The history of coach education in Western countries, much like higher education, has been shaped by societal influences and external drivers. The resulting trajectory includes a notable movement and shift in focus related to educational paradigms. Being learner-centered (LC) has become a central theme and mission by many coach education programs. The purpose of this case study was twofold: to explore the evolution of the historically rich coach education program of golf in Canada, and to assess the LC status of the most recently developed context of the program using Blumberg’s (2009) framework for developing and assessing learner-centered teaching (LCT). A series of program documents and interviews with seven coach development administrators involved in the program were analyzed. Findings revealed the turbulent epistemic evolution of the program and its pedagogical approaches, as well as the combination of internal and external drivers that triggered the shift from one extreme (instructor-centered teaching) to another (LCT) until finding a functional equilibrium. Moreover, the assessment of the program confirmed its claims of being LC. Discussions are presented on leading a LC change, facilitating learning, and using the framework to assess LC coach education.

Kyle Paquette and Pierre Trudel are with the School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Address author correspondence to Kyle Paquette at kpaqu098@uottawa.ca.
  • Alexander, P., & Murphy, P. (1998). The research base for APA’s learner-centered psychological principles. In N. Lambert & B. McCombs (Eds.), How students learn: Reforming schools through learner-centered education (pp. 2560). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Armour, K. (2010). The learning coach… the learning approach: Professional development for sports coach professionals. In J. Lyle & C. Cushion (Eds.), Sports coaching: Professionalisation and practice (pp. 153164). London, UK: Churchill Livingstone.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barr, R.B., & Tagg, J. (1995, November/December). From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change Magazine, 27(6), 1226. doi:10.1080/00091383.1995.10544672

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernard, G. (1999). Teaching & Coaching Certification Program (Levels 1–5). Canadian PGA.

  • Blumberg, P. (2009). Developing learner-centered teaching: A practical guide for faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Blumberg, P. (2016). Factors that influence faculty adoption of learning-centered approaches. Innovative Higher Education, 41(4), 303315. doi:10.1007/s10755-015-9346-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumberg, P., & Pontiggia, L. (2011). Benchmarking the degree of implementation of learner-centered approaches. Innovative Higher Education, 36(3), 189202. doi:10.1007/s10755-010-9168-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., Clarke, V., & Weate, P. 2016. Using thematic analysis in sport and exercise research. In B. Smith & C. Sparkes (Eds.), Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise (pp. 191205). Oxon, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brinkmann, S. (2013). Qualitative interviewing. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  • Burke, S. (2016). Rethinking ‘validity’ and ‘trustworthiness’ in qualitative inquiry. In B. Smith & C. Sparkes (Eds.), Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise (pp. 330339). Oxon, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callary, B., Culver, D., Werthner, P., & Bales, J. (2014). An overview of seven national coach education programs. International Sport Coaching Journal, 1(3), 152164. doi:10.1123/iscj.2014-0094

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassidy, T., Potrac, P., & McKenzie, A. (2006). Evaluating and reflecting upon a coach education initiative: The CoDe of rugby. Sport Psychologist, 20(2), 145161. doi:10.1123/tsp.20.2.145

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chesterfield, G., Potrac, P., & Jones, R. (2010). ‘Studentship’ and ‘impression management’ in an advanced coach education program. Sport, Education and Society, 15(3), 299314. doi:10.1080/13573322.2010.493311

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coaching Association of Canada. (2010a). Coach development competitor: Candidate workbook. Paper presented at the Canadian PGA’s Teaching and Coaching Certification Program, Canada.

    • Export Citation
  • Coaching Association of Canada. (2010b). Coach development competitor: Facilitator guide. Paper presented at the Canadian PGA’s Teaching and Coaching Certification Program, Canada.

    • Export Citation
  • Coaching Association of Canada. (2010c). Coach development competitor: Evaluator’s guide. Paper presented at the Canadian PGA’s Teaching and Coaching Certification Program, Canada.

    • Export Citation
  • Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 113143. doi:10.3102/003465430298563

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cullen, R., Harris, M., & Hill, R. (2012). The learner-centered curriculum: Design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Doyle, T. (2011). Learner-centered teaching: Putting the research on learning into practice. Sterling, VA: Stylist Publishing.

  • Eisner, E.W. (1983). The art and craft of teaching. Educational Leadership, 1, 513.

  • Fox, D. (1983). Personal theories of teaching. Studies in Higher Education, 8(2), 151163. doi:10.1080/03075078312331379014

  • Gilbert, W.D., & Trudel, P. (2004). Analysis of coaching science research published from 1970–2001. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75(4), 388399. doi:10.1080/02701367.2004.10609172

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hammond, J., & Perry, J. (2005). A multi-dimensional assessment of soccer coaching course effectiveness. Ergonomics, 48(11–14), 16981710. doi:10.1080/00140130500101213

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, M., & Cullen, R. (2010). Leading the learner-centered campus. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Horgan, P., & Daly, P. (2015). The role of the coach developer in supporting and guiding coach learning: A commentary. International Sport Coaching Journal, 2(3), 354356. doi:10.1123/iscj.2015-0077

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsieh, H.F., & Shannon, S.E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 12771288. PubMed doi:10.1177/1049732305276687

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hussain, A., Trudel, P., Patrick, T., & Rossi, A. (2012). Reflections on a novel coach education program. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 7(2), 227240. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.7.2.227

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, G.A. (2012). Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Jones, R., Morgan, K., & Harris, K. (2012). Developing coaching pedagogy: Seeking a better integration of theory and practice. Sport, Education and Society, 17(3), 313329. doi:10.1080/13573322.2011.608936

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, R.L. (2006). The sports coach as educator: Re-conceptualising sports coaching. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • King, A. (1993). From sage on stage to guide on the side. College Teaching, 41(1), 3035. doi:10.1080/87567555.1993.9926781

  • Lyle, J., & Cushion, C. (2010). Narrowing the field: Some key questions about sports coaching. In J. Lyle & C. Cushion (Eds.), Sports coaching: Professionalization and practice (pp. 124138). London, UK: Churchill Livingstone.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marini, Z.A. (2000). The teacher as a scherpa guide. Teaching Professor, 14(4), 5.

  • McCombs, B.L. (2014). Using a 360 degree assessment model to support learning to learn. In R. Deakin-Crick, T. Small, & C. Stringher (Eds.), Learning to learn for all: Theory, practice and international research: A multidisciplinary and lifelong perspective (pp. 241270). Oxon, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCombs, B.L., & Miller, L. (2007). Learner-centered classroom practices and assessments: Maximizing student motivation, learning, and achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCombs, B.L., & Miller, L. (2009). The school leader’s guide to learner-centered education: From complexity to simplicity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCombs, B.L., & Whistler, J.S. (1997). Learner-centered classroom and school: Strategies for increasing student motivation and achievement. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCullick, B.A., Belcher, D., & Schempp, P.G. (2005). What works in coaching and sport instructor certification programs? The participants’ view. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 10(2), 121137. doi:10.1080/17408980500105015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McNeely, I.F., & Wolverton, L. (2008). Reinventing knowledge: From Alexandria to the Internet. New York, NY: Norton & Norton Company.

  • McQuade, S., & Nash, C. (2015). The role of the coach developer in supporting and guiding coach learning. International Sport Coaching Journal, 2(3), 339346. doi:10.1123/iscj.2015-0059

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, L., Cushion, C.J., Potrac, P., & Groom, R. (2014). Carl Rogers, learning and educational practice: Critical considerations and applications in sports coaching. Sport, Education and Society, 19(5), 513531. doi:10.1080/13573322.2012.689256

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Own the Podium (2016). Annual report 2015–2016. Retrieved from http://www.ownthepodium.org/ownthepodium/Documents/AnnualReport-2015-2016.pdf

    • Export Citation
  • Paquette, K., & Trudel, P. (2016). Learner-centered teaching: A consideration for revitalizing coach education. In P.A. Davis (Ed.), The psychology of effective coaching and management (pp. 5370). New York, NK: Nova Science.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paquette, K.J., Hussain, A., Trudel, P., & Camiré, M. (2014). A sport federation’s attempt to restructure a coach education program using constructivist principles. International Sport Coaching Journal, 1(2), 7585. doi:10.1123/iscj.2013-0006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piggott, D. (2015). The open society and coach education: A philosophical agenda for policy reform and future research. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 20(3) 283298. doi:10.1080/17408989.2013.837435

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Professional Golfer’s Association of Canada. (1985). National teaching manual. Canadian Professional Golfer’s Association.

  • Professional Golfer’s Association of Canada. (2016). The history of the PGA of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.pgaofcanadahalloffame.com/historic-timeline/

    • Export Citation
  • Quehl, G.H., Bergquist, W.H., & Subbiondo, J.L. (1999). Fifty years of innovations in undergraduate education: Change and stasis in the pursuit of quality. Indianapolis, IN: USA Group Foundation.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts, S.J., & Ryrie, A. (2014). Socratic case-method teaching in sports coach education: Reflections of students and course tutors. Sport, Education and Society, 19(1), 6379. doi:10.1080/13573322.2011.632626

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, C.R. (1969). Freedom to learn. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Company.

  • Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). Delran, NJ: Simon and Schuster.

  • Schiro, M.S. (2013). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • Tagg, J. (2003). The learning paradigm college. Bolton, MA: Anker.

  • Taylor, W.G., & Garratt, D. (2013). Coaching and professionalisation. In P. Potrac, W. Gilbert, & J. Denison (Eds.), Routledge handbook of sports coaching (pp. 1626). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tracy, S.J. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight ‘Big Tent’ criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(10), 837851. doi:10.1177/1077800410383121

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trudel, P., Culver, D., & Werthner, P. (2013). Looking at coach development from the coach-learner’s perspective: Considerations for coach administrators. In P. Potrac, W. Gilbert, & J. Denison (Eds.), Routledge handbook of sports coaching (pp. 375387). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trudel, P., Gilbert, W., & Werthner, P. (2010). Coach education effectiveness. In J. Lyle & C. Cushion (Eds.), Sports coaching: Professionalization and practice (pp. 124138). London, UK: Churchill Livingstone.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trudel, P., & Gilbert, W.D. (2006). Coaching and coach education. In D. Kirk, M. O’sullivan, & D. McDonald (Eds.), Handbook of physical education (pp. 516539). London, UK: Sage.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UK Sport (2016). The United Kingdom Sports Council: Annual report 2015–2016. Retrieved from http://www.uksport.gov.uk/~/media/files/annualreports/uk_sport_ar16_tagged.pdf?

    • Export Citation
  • Weimer, M. (2013). Learner-centered teaching: Five key changes to practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Werthner, P., Trudel, P., & Culver, D. (2012). An examination of a large-scale coach education program from a constructivist perspective. In R. Schinke (Ed.), Sport psychology insights (pp. 337355). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 276 264 41
Full Text Views 20 19 5
PDF Downloads 19 18 5