Coaching Behaviors as Sources of Relation-Inferred Self-Efficacy (RISE) in American Male High School Athletes

in International Sport Coaching Journal
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Perceptions of relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) are developed from the interpretation of another’s verbal and nonverbal behaviors and have been shown to impact self-efficacy, which, in sport, can influence areas such as an individual’s choice to participate and level of enjoyment. This qualitative study identified specific coaching behaviors that high school male athletes use to inform their RISE beliefs. Forty-three high school male student-athletes participated in focus group interviews regarding their high school sport experiences, specifically related to how they perceive various coaching behaviors. Analysis revealed seven major themes: general encouragement, efficacy building statements, instruction, task-oriented statements, challenging opportunities, focused interpersonal attention, and expressiveness. A unique aspect compared to similar studies was the emergence of subthemes related to coaches caring about academic performance or providing opportunities to be a starter or leader on the team. Findings provided support for the tripartite model of efficacy beliefs in that high school athletes were aware and perceptive of different coaching behaviors they personally experienced. There was also a strong desire conveyed by the student-athletes for a personal relationship with their coaches outside of the athletic setting, indicating that coaches should do their best to communicate individually to each athlete.

McMullen is with the Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, USA. Henderson and Newton are with the Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Recreation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. Ziegenfuss is with J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

McMullen (bmcmullen@uwlax.edu) is corresponding author.
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