Examining Coaches’ Perspectives on the Use of Exercise as Punishment

in International Sport Coaching Journal
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Toronto
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $41.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $55.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $79.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $105.00

The negative consequences associated with punishment, highlighted by researchers in the parenting and education domains, have stimulated a shift toward more developmentally appropriate methods of behavior modification. Despite the reported negative outcomes linked with punishment use, preliminary research in sport indicates that punishment, specifically in the form of exercise, remains a common strategy in this domain. The purpose of this study therefore was to explore interuniversity coaches’ perspectives on the use of exercise as punishment. Semistructured interviews with eight interuniversity coaches (four males and four females) were conducted. Data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participant accounts revealed that exercise as punishment was implemented frequently in a variety of forms (e.g., push-ups and sprints). Perceived benefits for the use of exercise as punishment, such as performance motivation and team cohesion, as well as suggested alternative methods of behavioral modification were also reported. Findings are interpreted in accordance with punishment, shaming, and coach education research. Recommendations for future research and practice are suggested.

The authors are with the Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Battaglia (anthony.battaglia@mail.utoronto.ca) is corresponding author.
  • Albrecht, R. (2009). Drop and give us 20, Seifried: A practical response to defending the use of punishment by coaches. Quest, 61(4), 470475. doi:10.1080/00336297.2009.10483626

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrews, T.M. (2016, October). Volunteer football coach dismissed for making boy run laps after he bullied teammate. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baribeau, J.R. (2006). Discipline and punishment: How different are they? Coach and Athletic Director, 76(5), 68.

  • Battaglia, A.V., Kerr, G., & Stirling, A.E. (2017). Youth athletes’ interpretations of punitive coaching practices. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 29(3), 337352. doi:10.1080/10413200.2016.1271370

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Battaglia, A., Kerr, G., & Stirling, A. (2018). Examining the influence of athletes’ punishment experiences on decisions to cease participation in competitive hockey. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2018.1536158

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bear, G.G. (2005). Developing self-discipline and preventing and correcting misbehavior. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

  • Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

  • Braithwaite, J., & Braithwaite, V. (2001). Shame, shame management and regulation. In E. Ahmed, N. Harris, J. Braithwaite, & V. Braithwaite (Eds.), Shame management through reintegration (pp. 369). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77101. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bredemeier, B.J., Shields, D.L., & Shields, D.L. (1986). Moral growth among athletes and non-athletes: A comparative analysis. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 147(1), 718. doi:10.1080/00221325.1986.9914475

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burak, L.J., Rosenthal, M., & Richardson, K. (2013). Examining attitudes, beliefs, and intentions regarding the use of exercise as punishment in physical education and sport: An application of the theory of reasoned action. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(7) 14361445. doi:10.1111/jasp.12100

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, M. (2001). Obeying until it hurts: Coach-athlete relationships. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 28(2) 227240. doi:10.1080/00948705.2001.9714616

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M., Trudel, P., & Forneris, T. (2014). Examining how model youth sport coaches learn to facilitate positive youth development. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(1), 117. doi:10.1080/17408989.2012.726975

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, K. (2016, October). Kid’s coach suspended for forcing pushups after defeat. The Hockey News. Retrieved from https://thehockeynews.com/news/article/kids-coach-suspended-for-forcing-pushups-after-defeat

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport. (2013). The use of physical punishment of children and youth in sport and recreation [Position statement]. Retrieved from https://cces.ca/sites/default/files/content/docs/pdf/cces_position_statement_on_use_of_physical_punishment_english.pdf

  • Carlsmith, K., Darley, J., & Robinson, P. (2002). Why do we punish? Deterrence and just deserts as motives for punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(2) 284299. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.83.2.284

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CBS News. (2012, June). Student athletes’ deaths prompt new workout guidelines. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/student-athletes-deaths-prompt-new-workout-guidelines/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1997). Guidelines for school and community programs to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 46(6), 142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coakley, J. (2014). Sport in society: Issues and controversies (11th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

  • Collins, J., & Durand-Bush, N. (2016). Coaching strategies to optimize team functioning in high performance curling. International Sport Coaching Journal, 3(3), 240256. doi:10.1123/iscj.2016-0073

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • David, P. (2005). Human rights in youth sport: A critical review of children’s rights in competitive sport. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • Dubanoski, R., Inaba, M., & Gerkewicz, K. (1983). Corporal punishment in schools: Myths, problems and alternatives. Child Abuse & Neglect, 7(3), 271278. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(83)90004-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Durrant, J. (2011). Positive discipline: What it is and how to do it (2nd ed.). Stockholm, Sweden: Save the Children Sweden.

  • Durrant, J., & Ensom, R. (2004). Joint statement on physical punishment of children and youth. Ottawa, Canada: Coalition on Physical Punishment of Children and Youth.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forlenza, S.T., Pierce, S., Vealey, R.S., & Mackersie, J. (2018). Coaching behaviors that enhance confidence in athletes and teams. International Sport Coaching Journal, 5(3), 205212. doi:10.1123/iscj.2017-0040

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fraser-Thomas, J., & Côté, J. (2009). Understanding adolescents’ positive and negative developmental experiences in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 23(1) 323. doi:10.1123/tsp.23.1.3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gershoff, E. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 539579. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.4.539

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giknis, F. (2016, April). Is physical activity as punishment acceptable in college athletics. CollegeAD. Retrieved from http://collegead.com/physical-activity-punishment-acceptable-college-athletics/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holt, N. (2016). Positive youth development through sport (2nd ed.). London, UK: Routledge.

  • Huber, J. (2013). Applying educational psychology in coaching athletes. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Kerr, G., Stirling, A., MacPherson, E., Banwell, J., Bandealy, A., & Preston, C. (2016). Exploring the use of exercise as punishment in sport. International Journal of Coaching Science, 10(2), 3553.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kessel, J. (2016, May). What is it with physical punishment? USA Volleyball. Retrieved from https://www.teamusa.org/USA-Volleyball/Features/2016/May/27/What-is-it-with-Physical-Punishment-in-So-Few-Sports

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larzelere, R.E. (2000). Child outcomes of nonabusive and customary physical punishment by parents: An updated literature review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3(4), 199221. doi:10.1023/A:1026473020315

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martens, B.K., & Meller, P.J. (1990). The application of behavioral principles to educational settings. In T.B. Gutkin & C.R. Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of school psychology (2nd ed., pp. 612634). New York, NY: Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, J. (2017, January). Oregon suspends strength coach after players hospitalized. CNN Sports. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2017/01/18/sport/oregon-suspends-strength-coach/index.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McConnell, J.V. (1990). Negative reinforcement and positive punishment. Teaching of Psychology, 17(4), 247249. doi:10.1207/s15328023top1704_10

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murphy, K., & Harris, N. (2007). Shaming, shame and recidivism: A test of reintegrative shaming theory in the white-collar crime context. The British Journal of Criminology, 47(6), 900917. doi:10.1093/bjc/azm037

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (2009). Physical activity used as punishment and/or behavior management [Position statement]. Retrieved from http://www.aahperd.org/naspe/standards/upload/Physical-Activity-asPunishment-to-Board-12-10.pdfart

  • Osher, D., Bear, G.G., Sprague, J.R., & Doyle, W. (2010). How can we improve school discipline? Educational Researcher, 39(1), 4858. doi:10.3102/0013189X09357618

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richardson, K., Rosenthal, M., & Burak, L. (2012). Exercise as punishment: An application of the theory of planned behavior. American Journal of Health Education, 43(1), 356365. doi:10.1080/19325037.2012.10598866

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seifried, C. (2008). Examining punishment and discipline: Defending the use of punishment by coaches. Quest, 60(3), 370386. doi:10.1080/00336297.2008.10483587

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seifried, C. (2010). The misconception of corporal punishment: A rejoin to Albrecht’s Drop and give us 20, Seifried: A practical response to defending the use of punishment by coaches. Quest, 62(2), 218223. doi:10.1080/00336297.2010.10483643

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sim, J., Saunders, B., Waterfield, J., & Kingstone, T. (2018). Can sample size in qualitative research be determined a priori? International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 21(5), 619634. doi:10.1080/13645579.2018.1454643

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skinner, B.F. (1974). About behaviorism. New York, NY: Random House.

  • Sparkes, A.C., & Smith, B. (2014). Qualitative research methods in sport, exercise and health: From process to product. New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stebbings, J., Taylor, I.M., Spray, C.M., & Ntoumanis, N. (2012). Antecedents of perceived coach interpersonal behaviors: The coaching environment and coach psychological well-and ill-being. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 34(4), 481502. doi:10.1123/jsep.34.4.481

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stirling, A.E., & Kerr, G.A. (2008). Defining and categorizing emotional abuse in sport. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(4), 173181. doi:10.1080/17461390802086281

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stirling, A.E., & Kerr, G.A. (2009). Abused athletes’ perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship. Sport in Society, 12(2), 227239. doi:10.1080/17430430802591019

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stirling, A.E., & Kerr, G.A. (2013). The perceived effects of elite athletes’ experiences of emotional abuse in the coach-athlete relationship. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 87100. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2013.752173

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stodter, A., & Cushion, C. (2016). Effective coach learning and processes of coaches’ knowledge development: What works? In P.A. Davis (Ed.), The psychology of effective coaching and management (pp. 3551). New York, NY: Nova Science.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tangney, J.P., & Dearing, R. (2002). Shame and guilt. New York, NY: Guilford.

  • Taylor, I.M., Ntoumanis, N., & Smith, B. (2009). The social context as a determinant of teacher motivational strategies in physical education. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(2), 235243. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.09.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tepperman, L. (2011). Starting points: A sociological journey. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Vella, S., Oades, L., & Crowe, T. (2011). The role of the coach in facilitating positive youth development: Moving from theory to practice. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23(1), 3348. doi:10.1080/10413200.2010.511423

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Women’s Sports Foundation. (2007). Addressing the issue of verbal, physical and psychological abuse of athletes [Position statement]. Retrieved from http://www.womenssportsfoundation.org/Content/Articles/lssues/Coaching/A/Addressing-the-lssue-of-Verbal-Physical-and-Psycholog-ical-Abuse-of-Athletes-The-Foundation-Position.aspx

  • Young, K. (2012). Sport, violence and society. New York, NY: Routledge.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 220 220 50
Full Text Views 32 32 9
PDF Downloads 21 21 7