Bridging the Gap Between Science and Application: The Use of Cocreation Educational Workshops in Professional Youth Soccer

in International Sport Coaching Journal
View More View Less
  • 1 Liverpool John Moores University
  • | 2 St Mary’s University
  • | 3 Istituto Italiano Di Tecnologia
  • | 4 University College London
Restricted access

We examined whether practice activities adopted by professional youth soccer coaches are modulated through the implementation of and engagement with cocreative evidence-based programs. Across two experiments, we used systematic observation to identify the practice activities of seven coaches across 134 sessions. In Experiment A, drill-based and games-based activities were recorded and quantified. To encourage behaviour change across the study, the systematic observation data were compared with skill acquisition literature to provide coaches with quantitative feedback and recommendations during workshops. Postworkshop systematic observation data indicated that practice activities used by coaches changed in accordance with the evidenced-based information (increase in games-based activities) delivered within the workshop. Interview data indicated that coaches typically stated that the workshop was a key reason for behaviour change. In a follow-up Experiment B, feedback and recommendations were delivered using an interactive video-based workshop. The systematic observation data indicated that coaches increased the use of soccer activities that contained active decision making with coaches citing the workshop as a key reason for behaviour change. These findings indicate that coaching practice activities can be supported and shaped through the implementation of cocreated workshops wherein coaches collaborate with sport scientists and researchers to bridge the gap between science and application.

Andrew, Miller, McRobert, Seerden, and Littlewood are with the Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Ford is with the Department of Psychology and Pedagogic Sciences, St Mary’s University, Twickenham, London, United Kingdom. Foster is with the Cognition, Motion and Neuroscience Unit, Istituto Italiano Di Tecnologia, Genoa, Italy. Hayes is with the Department of Psychology and Human Development, UCL Institute of Education, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Andrew (M.Andrew@ljmu.ac.uk) is corresponding author.
  • Brewer, C.J., & Jones, R.L. (2002). A five-stage process for establishing contextually valid systematic observation instruments: The case of rugby union. Sport Psychologist, 16(2), 138159. doi:10.1123/tsp.16.2.138

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broadbent, D.P., Causer, J., Ford, P.R., & Williams, A.M. (2015). Contextual interference effect on perceptual–cognitive skills training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(6), 12431250. PubMed ID: 25255127 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000530

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassidy, T., & Rossi, T. (2006). Situating learning: (Re)examining the notion of apprenticeship in coach education. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 1(3), 235246. doi:10.1260/174795406778604591

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassidy, T.G., Jones, R.L.& Potrac, P. (2008). Understanding sports coaching: The social, cultural and pedagogical foundations of coaching practice. London, UK: Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cope, E., Partington, M., & Harvey, S. (2017). A review of the use of a systematic observation method in coaching research between 1997 and 2016. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(20), 20422050. PubMed ID: 27876445 doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1252463

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cushion, C. (2015). Mentoring for success in sport coaching. In F.C. Chambers (Ed.), Mentoring in physical education and sports coaching (pp. 155162). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cushion, C., Armour, K.M., & Jones, R.L. (2003). Coach education and continuing professional development: Experience and learning to coach. Quest, 55(3), 215230. doi:10.1080/00336297.2003.10491800

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cushion, C., Ford, P.R., & Williams, A.M. (2012). Coach behaviours and practice structures in youth soccer: Implications for talent development. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(15), 16311641. PubMed ID: 23016800 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.721930

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darst, P.W., Zakrajsek, D., & Mancini, V.H. (1989). Analyzing physical education and sport instruction. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Dawson, P. (2014). Beyond a definition: Toward a framework for designing and specifying mentoring models. Educational Researcher, 43(3), 137145. doi:10.3102/0013189X14528751

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eather, N., Jones, B., Miller, A., & Morgan, P.J. (2020). Evaluating the impact of a coach development intervention for improving coaching practices in junior football (soccer): The “MASTER” pilot study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(11–12), 14411453. PubMed ID: 31131727 doi:10.1080/02640414.2019.1621002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Field, A. (2017). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London, UK: Sage Publications.

  • Ford, P.R., Carling, C., Garces, M., Marques, M., Miguel, C., Farrant, A., … Williams, M. (2012). The developmental activities of elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(15), 16531663. PubMed ID: 22788752 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.701762

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ford, P.R., Hodges, N.J., Broadbent, D., O’Connor, D., Scott, D., Datson, N., … Williams, A.M. (2020). The developmental and professional activities of female international soccer players from five high-performing nations. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(11–12), 14321440. PubMed ID: 32627682 doi:10.1080/02640414.2020.1789384

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ford, P.R., & Whelan, J. (2016). Practice activities during coaching sessions in elite youth football and their effect on skill acquisition. In W. Allison, A. Abraham, & A. Cale (Eds.), Advances in coach education and development: From research to practice (pp. 112123). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ford, P.R., & Williams, A.M. (2013). The acquisition of skill and expertise: The role of practice and other activities. In. A.M. Williams (Ed.), Science and Soccer, Developing Elite Performers (pp. 122138). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ford, P.R., Yates, I., & Williams, A.M. (2010). An analysis of practice activities and instructional behaviours used by youth soccer coaches during practice: Exploring the link between science and application. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(5), 483495. PubMed ID: 20419591 doi:10.1080/02640410903582750

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fowler, C.A., & Turvey, M.T. (1978). Skill acquisition: An event approach with special reference to searching for the optimum of a function of several variables. In G.E. Stelmach (Ed.), Information processing in motor controland learning (pp. 140). New York, NY: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Franks, M.I., Hodges, N., & More, K. (2001). Analysis of coaching behaviour. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 1(1), 2736. doi:10.1080/24748668.2001.11868246

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilbert, W., Côté, J., & Mallett, C. (2006). Developmental paths and activities of successful sport coaches. Soccer Journal, 55(3), 1012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilbert, W., Lichtenwaldt, L., Gilbert, J., Zelezny, L., & Côté, J. (2009). Developmental profiles of successful high school coaches. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 4(3), 415431. doi:10.1260/174795409789623928

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. New Jersey, NJ: Routledge.

  • Graneheim, U.H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, 24(2), 105112. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greenwood, D., Davids, K., & Renshaw, I. (2012). How elite coaches’ experiential knowledge might enhance empirical research on sport performance. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 7(2), 411422. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.7.2.411

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Groom, R., & Cushion, C. (2004). Coaches perceptions of the use of video analysis: A case study. Insight, 7(3), 5658.

  • Guadagnoli, M.A.& Lee, T.D. (2004). Challenge point: A framework for conceptualizing the effects of various practice conditions in motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 36(2), 212224. doi:10.3200/JMBR.36.2.212-224

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, E.T., Gray, S., & Sproule, J. (2016). The microstructure of coaching practice: Behaviours and activities of an elite rugby union head coach during preparation and competition. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(10), 896905. PubMed ID: 26260577 doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1076571

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Handford, C., Davids, K., Bennett, S., & Button, C. (1997). Skill acquisition in sport: Some applications of an evolving practice ecology. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15(6), 621640. PubMed ID: 9486439 doi:10.1080/026404197367056

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harvey, S., Cushion, C.J., & Massa-Gonzalez, A.N. (2010). Learning a new method: Teaching games for understanding in the coaches eyes. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 15(4), 361382. doi:10.1080/17408980903535818

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, R.L., Armour, K.M.& Potrac, P. (2002). Understanding the coaching process: A framework for social analysis. Quest, 54(1), 3448. doi:10.1080/00336297.2002.10491765

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, R.L., Edwards, C., & Viotto Filho, I.T. (2016). Activity theory, complexity and sports coaching: An epistemology for a discipline. Sport, Education and Society, 21(2), 200216. doi:10.1080/13573322.2014.895713

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, R.L., Harris, R., & Miles, A. (2009). Mentoring in sports coaching: A review of the literature. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 14(3), 267284. doi:10.1080/17408980801976569

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, R.L., Potrac, P., Cushion, C., & Ronglan, L.T. (2010). The sociology of sports coaching. Routledge.

  • Jones, R.L., & Thomas, G.L. (2015). Coaching as “scaffolded” practice: Further insights into sport pedagogy. Sports Coaching Review, 4(2), 6579. doi:10.1080/21640629.2016.1157321

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, T.D., & Magill, R.A. (1983). The locus of contextual interference in motor-skill acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9(4), 730746. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.9.4.730

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leeder, T.M., & Sawiuk, R. (2020). Reviewing the sports coach mentoring literature: A look back to take a step forward. Sports Coaching Review, 124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y., & Wright, D.L. (2000). An assessment of the attention demands during random-and blocked-practice schedules. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 53(2), 591606. doi:10.1080/713755890

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Low, J., Williams, A.M., McRobert, A.P., & Ford, P.R. (2013). The microstructure of practice activities engaged in by elite and recreational youth cricket players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(11), 12421250. PubMed ID: 23547916 doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.778419

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, L.J., Turnquist, A., Groot, B., Huang, S.Y., Kok, E., Thoma, B., & van Merriënboer, J.J. (2019). Exploring the role of infographics for summarizing medical literature. Health Professions Education, 5(1), 4857. doi:10.1016/j.hpe.2018.03.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martindale, R., & Nash, C. (2013). Sport science relevance and application: Perceptions of UK coaches. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(8), 807819. PubMed ID: 23249400 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.754924

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meeûs, M.S.P., Serpa, S., & De Cuyper, B. (2010). The effects of video feedback on coaches behaviour and the coach-athlete relationship. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4(4), 323340. doi:10.1123/jcsp.4.4.323

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, A., Harvey, S., Morley, D., Nemes, R., Janes, M., & Eather, N. (2017). Exposing athletes to playing form activity: Outcomes of a randomised control trial among community netball teams using a game-centred approach. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(18), 18461857. doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1240371

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nédélec, M., McCall, A., Carling, C., Legall, F., Berthoin, S., & Dupont, G. (2012). Recovery in soccer. Sports Medicine, 42(12), 9971015. PubMed ID: 23046224 doi:10.1007/BF03262308

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, L., Cushion, C.& Potrac, P. (2013). Enhancing the provision of coach education: The recommendations of UK coaching practitioners. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 18(2), 204218. doi:10.1080/17408989.2011.649725

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nosek, P., Brownlee, T.E., Drust, B., & Andrew, M. (2021). Feedback of GPS training data within professional English soccer: A comparison of decision making and perceptions between coaches, players and performance staff. Science and Medicine in Football, 5(1), 3547. doi:10.1080/24733938.2020.1770320

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Connor, D., Larkin, P., & Williams, A.M. (2017). What learning environments help improve decision-making? Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 22(6), 647660. doi:10.1080/17408989.2017.1294678

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Connor, D., Larkin, P., & Williams, A.M. (2018). Observations of youth football training: How do coaches structure training sessions for player development? Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(1), 3947. PubMed ID: 28065123 doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1277034

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Partington, M., & Cushion, C. (2013). An investigation of the practice activities and coaching behaviours of professional top‐level youth soccer coaches. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23(3), 374382. PubMed ID: 22092356 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01383.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Partington, M., Cushion, C., & Harvey, S. (2014). An investigation of the effect of athletes’ age on the coaching behaviours of professional top-level youth soccer coaches. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(5), 403414. PubMed ID: 24016055 doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.835063

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patton, M.Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. London, UK: SAGE Publications.

  • Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods. London, UK: SAGE Publications.

  • Patton, M.Q. (2014). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory into practice. London, UK: SAGE Publications.

  • Potrac, P., Brewer, C., Jones, R., Armour, K.& Hoff, J. (2000). Toward an holistic understanding of the coaching process. Quest, 52(2), 186199. doi:10.1080/00336297.2000.10491709

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Potrac, P., & Jones, R.L. (2009). Micropolitical workings in semi-professional football. Sociology of Sport Journal, 26(4), 557577.

  • Potrac, P., Jones, R.& Armour, K. (2002). “It’s all about getting respect”: The coaching behaviours of an expert English soccer coach. Sport Education and Society, 7(2), 183202. doi:10.1080/1357332022000018869

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Purdy, L., Jones, R., & Cassidy, T. (2009). Negotiation and capital: Athletes? Use of power in an elite men’s rowing program. Sport, Education and Society, 14(3), 321338.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raya-Castellano, P.E., Reeves, M.J., Littlewood, M., & McRobert, A.P. (2020). An exploratory investigation of junior-elite football coaches´ behaviours during video-based feedback sessions. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 20(4), 729746. doi:10.1080/24748668.2020.1782717

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salmoni, A.W., Schmidt, R.A., & Walter, C.B. (1984). Knowledge of results and motor learning: A review and critical reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 355386. PubMed ID: 6399752 doi:10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.355

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shea, C.H., & Kohl, R.M. (1991). Composition of practice: Influence on the retention of motor skills. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62(2), 187195. doi:10.1080/02701367.1991.10608709

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silverman, D., 2001. Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analyzing talk, text and interaction. London, UK: Sage publications.

  • Sparkes, C. (1998). Validity in qualitative enquiry and the problem of criteria: Implications for sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 12(4), 363386. doi:10.1123/tsp.12.4.363

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sports Coach, UK. (2011). Sports coaching in the UK 111; A statistical analysis of coaches and coaching in the UK. Leeds, UK: Author.

  • Stoszkowski, J., & Collins, D. (2016). Sources, topics and use of knowledge by coaches. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(9), 794802. PubMed ID: 26222481 doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1072279

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vincent, W.J., & Weir, J.P. (2012). Statistics in kinesiology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Williams, A.M., & Ford, P.R. (2013). “Game intelligence”: Anticipation and decision making. In A.M. Williams (Ed.), Science and soccer, developing elite performers (pp. 117133). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, A.M., & Hodges, N.J. (2005). Practice, instruction and skill acquisition in soccer: Challenging tradition. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(6), 637650. PubMed ID: 16195012 doi:10.1080/02640410400021328

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, S.J., & Kendall, L. (2007). Perceptions of elite coaches and sports scientists of the research needs for elite coaching practice. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(14), 15771586. PubMed ID: 17852663 doi:10.1080/02640410701245550

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, A.M., & Reilly, T. (2000). Talent identification and development in soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18(9), 657667. PubMed ID: 11043892 doi:10.1080/02640410050120041

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young, B.W., Jemczyk, K., Brophy, K., & Côté, J. (2009). Discriminating skilled coaching groups: Quantitative examination of developmental experiences and activities. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 4(3), 397414. doi:10.1260/174795409789623937

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1056 1056 170
Full Text Views 29 29 2
PDF Downloads 40 40 4