This paper reports a study of the optimal release of men's and women's new and old rule javelins involving modeling, simulation, optimization (including sensitivity analysis), and simulation evaluation. Because of the lack of repro-ducibility in earlier results of two-dimensional flight simulation research, the paper presents a continuation of the two-dimensional model used previously. As expected, each javelin was found to have a different optimal release for a given individual, and the optimal release varied with the thrower's nominal release speed. A limited degree of simulation evaluation was achieved by comparison of the model and simulation results with measured throws. Within the constraints of measurement error, this tended to support both the adequacy of the two-dimensional model and the results of the simulations for such high standard throws. However, further experimental studies to quantify the angle of yaw (sideslip) in measured wind conditions are recommended to assess any changes needed to the two-dimensional model of javelin throwing and to determine the advisability of including this three-dimensional aspect of javelin release in future simulations.
Russell J. Best is with the Department of PE and Recreation and the Centre for Rehabilitation, Exercise and Sport Science, Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. Roger M. Bartlett is with the Division of Sport Science, The Manchester Metropolitan University, Alsager, ST7 2HL, UK. Richard A. Sawyer is with the Department of Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT, UK.