Desirable flight styles and techniques in ski jumping were calculated on the basis of the new aerodynamic force data for three styles: classic style, V style, and flat V style. In the V style and flat V style two skis are in a herringbone position in the frontal plane, whereas in the classic style the skis are parallel Flat V style is more flat in the sagittal plane than V Style. The most effective style was the flat V style if a ski jumper model did not change style during the gliding phase, which was the late part of flight phase (distance was 110 m). If the model changed flight style, the model that changed from classic style to V style at 1.3 s after takeoff or from flat V style to V style at 1.6 s could achieve 112.5 m. In addition, forward initial angular velocity was a positive factor to increase distance; in particular, the distance for the V style was sensitive to initial angular velocity.
H. Jin was with the Institute of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, Japan, at the time of this study and is currently with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712. S. Shimizu, T. Watanuki, and H. Kubota are with the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. K. Kobayashi was with the Institute of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, at the time of this study and is currently with the School of Physical Education, Chukyo University, Toyota-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan. Direct correspondence to H. Jin, Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Laboratory, Bellmont Hall 530, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712.