The purpose of this study was to determine if the characteristic Hill model, used to describe me force–velocity relationship for isolated tetanically stimulated muscle, could be modified and used to describe me torque–velocity behavior of me hip for maximally and submaximally stimulated hip extensor muscles. Fourteen subjects performed hip extension movements at effort levels of 100%, 70%, and 40% of a maximum isometric effort. A solenoid provided isometric resistance to hip extension. Once the desired effort level was achieved, as indicated by me isometric force, the solenoid released and me hip moved against an opposing elastic resistance equal to 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the specified effort level. An electrogoniometer quantified hip angle. Hip velocity was determined by numerically differentiating the angle data. Torque-velocity-activation (or effort level) data were determined for each trial. Model parameters were determined to give me best fit to the data for each subject. Average parameter values were determined for each gender and for the entire group. The modified Hill-type model, Tm = (Tmax · A − K1 · ω)/(K2 · ω + 1), accurately describes me relationship between joint torque (Tm), maximum isometric joint torque (Tmax), joint velocity (ω), and muscle activation level (A) for subject-specific parameters (K1 and K2), but not for parameters averaged across genders or the entire group. Values for Tmax, K1, and K2 ranged from 90 to 385 Nm, 6.1 to 47.9 Nms, and 0.030 to 0.716 s, respectively.
D. Hawkins is with the Department of Exercise Science of me Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group at the University of California, Davis, CA 95616. M. Smeulders is with the Faculty of Human Movement Sciences in the Department of Exercise Physiology at Vrije University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.