The majority of existing normative torque generation capability (torque capability for short) databases are reported in the form of torque as a function of joint angle. although it is well recognized that torque capability is a function of both the joint angular position and angular velocity. The main objective of this study was to develop the methodology of 3-D dynamic representation of torque capability using the ankle joint as an example. The ankle torque capability of 20 males and females was assessed at 5 levels of ankle joint angular positions and velocities in each direction of plantar and dorsi flexion. The ANOVA results indicated significant main effects of joint angular position, angular velocity, direction, and gender, in addition to the interaction effect of angular position and velocity (p < .003) on the torque capability of the ankle joint. The regression analysis indicated that an individualized quadratic surface response performed significantly belter than the models developed for each gender or the whole population using the coefficient of determination and standard error of the regression as criteria. Such 3-D representation of torque capability has a broad spectrum of applications ranging from rehabilitation and ergonomic to biomechanical applications.
K.A. Khalaf is with the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33146. M. Parnianpour and T. Karakostas are with the Department of Biomedical Engineering at The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.