Lower-Extremity Kinetic Response to Weighted-Vest Resistance during Stepping Exercise in Older Adults

in Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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  • 1 University of Southern California
  • | 2 National Cheng Kung University
  • | 3 USC Keck School of Medicine
  • | 4 UCLA
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Stepping activities when wearing a weighted vest may enhance physical function in older persons. Using 3 weighted-vest resistance dosages, this study characterized the lower-extremity joint biomechanics associated with stepping activities in elders. Twenty healthy community-dwelling older adults, ages 74.5 ± 4.5 yrs, performed 3 trials of forward step-up and lateral step-up exercises while wearing a weighted vest which added 0% body weight (BW), 5% BW, or 10% BW. They performed these activities on a force platform while instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in ankle, knee, and hip maximum joint angles, peak net joint moments, joint powers, and impulses among both steping activities and the 3 loading conditions. Findings indicated that the 5% BW vest increased the kinetic output associated with the exercise activities at all three lower-extremity joints. These increases ranged from 5.9% for peak hip power to 12.5% for knee extensor impulse. The application of an additional 5% BW resistance did not affect peak joint moments or powers, but it did increase the joint impulses by 4–11%. Comparisons between exercise activities, across the 3 loading conditions, indicated that forward stepping preferentially targeted the hip extensors while lateral stepping targeted the plantar flexors; both activities equally targeted the knee extensors. Weighted-vest loads of 5% and 10% BW substantially increased the mechanical demand on the knee extensors, hip extensors (forward stepping), and ankle plantar flexors (lateral stepping).

Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Res. Lab, USC, Dept. of Biokinesiology & Physical Therapy, 1540 E. Alcazar St., Los Angeles, CA 90089

National Cheng Kung University, Dept. of Physical Therapy, Tainan, Taiwan

USC Keck School of Medicine, Dept. of Preventive Med., Los Angeles, CA 90089

UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Div. of Geriatrics, Los Angeles, CA 90095.