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In order to create a flexible model of the foot for dynamic musculoskeletal models, anthropometric data combined with geometric information describing the intrinsic musculature are needed. In this study, the left feet of two male and two female cadavers were dissected to expose the intrinsic musculotendon pathways. Three-dimensional coordinates of bony landmarks, tendon origins, insertions, and via points were digitized to submillimeter accuracy. Muscle architectural parameters were also measured, including volume, weight, and pennation angle and sarcomere, fascicle, and free tendon lengths. Optimal muscle fascicle lengths, pennation angles at optimal length, physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA), and tendon slack lengths were calculated from the directly measured values. Fascicle length and pennation angle varied greatly within each subject. Average fascicle lengths normalized by optimal fascicle length varied between 0.73 and 1.25, with 75% of the formalin-preserved muscles being found in a shortened state. The muscle volume and PCSA also had a large variability within subjects but less variation between subjects. The ratio of tendon slack length to optimal fascicle length was found to vary between 1.05 and 9.56. Using this data, a deformable model of the foot can now be created. It is envisioned that deformable feet will significantly improve
Lachowitzer is currently with Machine Solutions Inc., Flagstaff, AZ; Ranes is now with the University of Texas, Austin, TX; and Yamaguchi is with Exponent Failure Analysis Associates Inc., Phoenix, AZ.