The Effects of Orthotic Heel Lifts on Achilles Tendon Force and Strain During Running

in Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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This study assessed the effects of orthotic heel lifts on Achilles tendon (AT) force and strain during running. Ten females ran barefoot over a force plate in three conditions: no heel lifts (NHL), with 12 mm heel lifts (12HL) and with 18 mm heel lifts (18HL). Kinematics for the right lower limb were collected (200 Hz). AT force was calculated from inverse dynamics. AT strain was determined from kinematics and ultrasound images of medial gastrocnemius (50 Hz). Peak AT strain was less for 18HL (5.5 ± 4.4%) than for NHL (7.4 ± 4.2%) (p = .029, effect size [ES] = 0.44) but not for 12HL (5.8 ± 4.8%) versus NHL (ES = 0.35). Peak AT force was significantly (p = .024, ES = 0.42) less for 18HL (2382 ± 717 N) than for NHL (2710 ± 830 N) but not for 12HL (2538 ± 823 N, ES = 0.21). The 18HL reduced ankle dorsiflexion but not flexion-extension ankle moments and increased the AT moment arm compared with NHL. Thus, 18HL reduced force and strain on the AT during running via a reduction in dorsiflexion, which lengthened the AT moment arm. Therefore, heel lifts could be used to reduce AT loading and strain during the rehabilitation of AT injuries.

Dominic James Farris (Corresponding Author) is with Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, U.K., and with the Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA. Erica Buckeridge is with Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, U.K.; the Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College, London, U.K.; and with Surgery & Cancer, Imperial College, London, U.K. Grant Trewartha and Miranda Polly McGuigan are with Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, University of Bath, Bath, U.K.