Despite the common use of elastic resistance in training, only the static loading characteristics have been studied, whereas the dynamic components remain undetermined. The purpose was to determine the effect of two movement strategies on the shoulder resultant joint moment (RJM) during internal/external rotation exercise with elastic load. Ten healthy subjects performed sweep and step movement strategies over a constant range of motion and cadence (1:1). Shoulder RJM was determined using a Newtonian model with elastic force measured by force transducer, joint angle by electrogoniometer, and limb acceleration by accelerometer. Relative to the sweep strategy, the step strategy revealed a 49% increase in angle-specific RJM during the initial phase, RJM was reduced to 67–69% during midrange, and increased to over 110% at the end of the repetition. These RJM differences were wholly attributable to strategy-dependent changes in limb acceleration. Shoulder RJM in the sweep strategy was almost entirely explained by moment of elastic force. Movement strategy can substantially alter shoulder loading despite constant range of motion and cadence, impacting the magnitude and nature of the stimulus for neuromuscular adaptation. These acceleration-dependent changes in shoulder RJM may be important to consider for exercise efficacy and safety.
Gregory Neil Hodges (Corresponding Author) is with the Department of Physiotherapy, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Dean Johannes Kriellaars is with the Department of Physical Therapy, School of Medical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.