Lower extremity kinetic data during walking of 12 people with chronic poststroke were reanalyzed, using functional analysis of variance (FANOVA). To perform the FANOVA, the whole curve is represented by a mathematical function, which spans the whole gait cycle and avoids the need to identify isolated points, as required for traditional parametric analyses of variance (ANOVA). The power variables at the ankle, knee, and hip joints, in the sagittal plane, were compared between two conditions: With and without walking sticks at comfortable and fast speeds. For the ankle joint, FANOVA demonstrated increases in plantar flexion power generation during 60–80% of the gait cycle between fast and comfortable speeds with the use of walking sticks. For the knee joint, the use of walking sticks resulted in increases in the knee extension power generation during 10–30% of the gait cycle. During both speeds, the use of walking sticks resulted in increased power generation by the hip extensors and flexors during 10–30% and 40–70% of the gait cycle, respectively. These findings demonstrated the benefits of applying the FANOVA approach to improve the knowledge regarding the effects of walking sticks on gait biomechanics and encourage its use within other clinical contexts.
André G. P. Andrade is with the Department of Sports, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Janaine C. Polese is with the Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and with the Department of Physical Therapy, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Leopoldo A. Paolucci is with the Department of Structural Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Hans-Joachim K. Menzel is with the Department of Sports, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Luci F. Teixeira-Salmela is with Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Address author correspondence to André G. P. Andrade at email@example.com.