The Effects of a Lateral Wedge Insole on Knee and Ankle Joints During Slope Walking

in Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether a lateral wedge insole reduces the external knee adduction moment during slope walking. Twenty young, healthy subjects participated in this study. Subjects walked up and down a slope using 2 different insoles: a control flat insole and a 7° lateral wedge insole. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and force plate were used to examine the knee adduction moment, the ankle valgus moment, and the moment arm of the ground reaction force to the knee joint center in the frontal plane. The lateral wedge insole significantly decreased the moment arm of the ground reaction force, resulting in a reduction of the knee adduction moment during slope walking, similar to level walking. The reduction ratio of knee adduction moment by the lateral wedge insole during the early stance of up-slope walking was larger than that of level walking. Conversely, the lateral wedge insole increased the ankle valgus moment during slope walking, especially during the early stance phase of up-slope walking. Clinicians should examine the utilization of a lateral wedge insole for knee osteoarthritis patients who perform inclined walking during daily activity, in consideration of the load on the ankle joint.

Yuki Uto is with the Rehabilitation Division, Kagoshima Prefectural Hokusatsu Hospital, Ohkuchimiyahito, Isa-shi, Kagoshima, Japan. Tetsuo Maeda, Ryoji Kiyama, Akihiko Ohwatashi, Kiyohiro Fukudome, Tadasu Ohshige, Yoichi Yoshimoto, and Kazunori Yone are with Course of Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima, Japan. Masayuki Kawada is with Rehabilitation Medicine, Hidaka Hospital, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima, Japan. Ken Tokunaga is with the Rehabilitation Division, Kagoshima Seikyo Hospital, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima, Japan.

Address author correspondence to Ryoji Kiyama at