Muscle Forces and Their Contributions to Vertical and Horizontal Acceleration of the Center of Mass During Sit-to-Stand Transfer in Young, Healthy Adults

in Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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  • 1 The Ohio State University
  • 2 Stanford University
  • 3 North Carolina State University
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Sit-to-stand transfer is a common task that is challenging for older adults and others with musculoskeletal impairments. Associated joint torques and muscle activations have been analyzed two-dimensionally, neglecting possible three-dimensional (3D) compensatory movements in those who struggle with sit-to-stand transfer. Furthermore, how muscles accelerate an individual up and off the chair remains unclear; such knowledge could inform rehabilitation strategies. We examined muscle forces, muscleinduced accelerations, and interlimb muscle force differences during sit-to-stand transfer in young, healthy adults. Dynamic simulations were created using a custom 3D musculoskeletal model; static optimization and induced acceleration analysis were used to determine muscle forces and their induced accelerations, respectively. The gluteus maximus generated the largest force (2009.07 ± 277.31 N) and was a main contributor to forward acceleration of the center of mass (COM) (0.62 ± 0.18 m/s2), while the quadriceps opposed it. The soleus was a main contributor to upward (2.56 ± 0.74 m/s2) and forward acceleration of the COM (0.62 ± 0.33 m/s2). Interlimb muscle force differences were observed, demonstrating lower limb symmetry cannot be assumed during this task, even in healthy adults. These findings establish a baseline from which deficits and compensatory strategies in relevant populations (eg, elderly, osteoarthritis) can be identified.

Caruthers is with the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Thompson is with the Department of Bioengineering and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Chaudhari and Siston are with the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, the Department of Orthopaedics, and the School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Schmitt is with the Sports Health and Performance Institute and the School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Best is with the Sports Health and Performance Institute and the Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Saul is with the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.

Address author correspondence to Robert A. Siston at siston.1@osu.edu.