Sex-Related Differences in Scapular Kinematics During Elevation of the Arm in Asymptomatic Children and Adults

in Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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  • 1 Universidade Federal de São Carlos
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Recently, it has been suggested that sex may influence scapular kinematics. A more comprehensive analysis of the scapular kinematics in children and adults, including sex as a factor, will help to understand if differences between sexes are present since childhood. The purpose of this study was to compare scapular kinematics between sex in children and adults during elevation of the arm. One-hundred and sixteen asymptomatic adults (58 men and 58 women) and 53 children (28 boys and 25 girls) participated in the study. Three-dimensional scapular kinematics during elevation of the arm were obtained using an electromagnetic tracking device. Women had a more upwardly rotated scapula in the nondominant side (P < .05), with large effects and a more anteriorly tilted position at 60°, 90°, and 120° of arm elevation in the dominant side, and at 90° and 120° in the nondominant side (P < .05) with moderate effects when compared with men. Differences between sexes were not found in the children (P > .05). In conclusion, sex seems to influence scapular kinematics in adulthood, but not in childhood.

Habechian, Rosa, Haik, and Camargo are with the Department of Physical Therapy, Laboratory of Analysis and Intervention of the Shoulder Complex, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Address author correspondence to Paula R. Camargo at