Our aim with the current study was to compare upper extremity and cue kinematics, and electromyographic (EMG) activation of shoulder muscles during novus (a special form of billiards) shots of different difficulty levels. Ten proficient and 10 less-skilled novus players performed 3 types of novus shots (penalties, cuts, rebounds) 10 times each. During each shot, elbow flexion and cue–forearm angles (using a movement analysis system), and surface EMG activity of the trapezius, posterior, and lateral deltoid muscles of each subject’s dominant side, were measured. Data were compared between more- and less-skilled players, and successful compared with unsuccessful shots. Elbow flexion angle among the more-skilled players was 24.5% larger (P < .001) during unsuccessful cut shots than successful ones. The more-skilled players performed successful penalty and rebound shots with 26.8% and 49.8% lower (P < .01 and P < .001, respectively) EMG activity of the trapezius muscle than unsuccessful ones. Less-skilled players’ shots were characterized by higher EMG activity in the trapezius muscle. The obtained findings suggest that the more-skilled novus players had acquired a different muscle recruitment pattern than less-skilled players.
Talts, Ereline, Pääsuke, and Gapeyeva are with the Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia; and the Doctoral School of Behavioural, Social and Health Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia. Kums is with the Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
Address author correspondence to Viire Talts at email@example.com.